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Table 1 Participant demographics and outcome values by child sex (n = 368)

From: Prepregnancy obesity is associated with cognitive outcomes in boys in a low-income, multiethnic birth cohort

 Boys
(n = 165)
Girls
(n = 203)
p-value
Maternal
Prepregnancy BMI category, n (%)  0.54
 Underweight9 (5.5)9 (4.4) 
 Normal weight83 (50.3)95 (46.8) 
 Overweight34 (20.6)55 (27.1) 
 Obese39 (23.6)44 (21.7) 
Dominican ethnicity, n (%)98 (59.4)118 (58.1)0.81
Maternal education <high school, n (%)49 (29.7)78 (38.4)0.08
Receipt of public assistance or Medicaid, n (%)a152 (92.7)183 (90.6)0.48
Never married, %108 (65.5)143 (70.4)0.31
HOME score38.8 ± 6.539.7 ± 6.00.14
Total GWG, kg17.0 ± 6.816.1 ± 7.90.25
GWG Z-score0.26 ± 0.950.08 ± 1.090.10
Maternal IQ score85.0 ± 13.186.4 ± 13.30.35
Detectable PAHc, n (%)48 (36.9)55 (36.2)0.89
High chlorpyrifosd (> 6.17 pg/g), n (%)19 (16.1)18 (12.1)0.34
Child
Age at WISC-IV, months84.6 ± 2.184.8 ± 2.30.42
Full-scale composite WISC-IV score96.9 ± 13.399.7 ± 11.60.03
Intellectual disabilitye, n (%)1 (0.61)3 (1.5)0.42
Verbal comprehension WISC-IV score94.6 ± 11.996.6 ± 11.50.11
Perceptual reasoning WISC-IV score100.0 ± 14.5100.3 ± 12.70.78
Working memory WISC-IV score96.3 ± 14.299.9 ± 13.40.01
Processing speed WISC-IV score99.8 ± 16.2102.6 ± 14.90.08
  1. Values are means ± SD or percentages. aData available on 152 boys and 183 girls; cData available on 130 boys and 152 girls; dData available on 118 boys and 149 girls; eFull-scale WISC-IV score < =70. BMI, body mass index; GWG, Gestational weight gain; HOME, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment; PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; WISC-IV, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children