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Table 1 Tongan eHCI items and n (%) children for whom their caregiver/teacher reported yes/able

From: Measuring early childhood development in multiple contexts: the internal factor structure and reliability of the early Human Capability Index in seven low and middle income countries

DomainItemYes/ableMissing
Physical Health1. Is this child sickly or looked after poorly?a826 (13.3)5 (0.1)
2. Does this child have good hygiene (i.e. always wash their hands after toileting)?4929 (79.3)13 (0.2)
3. Does this child have positive habits?4073 (65.5)16 (0.3)
4. Does this child know good foods from bad foods?3710 (59.7)25 (0.4)
Verbal Communication1. Can this child use a group of words in talking?5705 (91.8)8 (0.1)
2. Can this child converse with others?5988 (96.3)8 (0.1)
3. Can this child talk about something that he/she has done?5619 (90.4)10 (0.2)
4. Can this child give detail with good Tongan words?3844 (61.9)10 (0.2)
5. Can this child hold an adult like conversation (for example talkative, always questioning)?5078 (81.7)16 (0.3)
Cultural Knowledge1. Shows compassion, understanding and tolerance of others?5229 (84.1)15 (0.2)
2. Can this child identify two culturally important foods/dishes?5043 (81.1)11 (0.2)
3. Can this child identify two local plants that provide food/fruits?4741 (76.3)14 (0.2)
4. Does this child show the Tongan cultural values of humility?2892 (46.5)21 (0.3)
5. Does this child show the Tongan cultural values of devotion/commitment/obligation/responsibility?2745 (44.2)16 (0.3)
6. Does this child show the Tongan cultural values of reciprocity in relationships?2849 (45.8)14 (0.2)
7. Does this child participate in cultural routines?4764 (76.7)11 (0.2)
8. Is this child able to say a short prayer?5503 (88.5)16 (0.3)
Social and Emotional1. Is this child happy to share their toys and belongings?5296 (85.2)9 (0.1)
2. Does this child take care of their own things?4579 (73.7)4 (0.1)
3. Does this child demonstrate respect for adults?3870 (62.3)11 (0.2)
4. Does this child demonstrate respect for other children?3945 (63.5)11 (0.2)
5. Does this child accept responsibility for their actions?4264 (68.6)9 (0.1)
6. Is this child considerate of other people’s feelings?4274 (68.8)6 (0.1)
7. Does this child repeatedly do something wrong even though he/she has been told to stop?a3612 (58.1)9 (0.1)
8. Is this child always helpful?5445 (87.6)6 (0.1)
9. Is this child friendly to other children?5644 (90.8)9 (0.1)
10. Does this child kick, bite or hit adults or other children?a2294 (36.9)12 (0.2)
11. Is this child impatient?a3868 (62.2)11 (0.2)
12. Does this child always understand the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour?4522 (72.8)8 (0.1)
13. Does this child follow simple directions on how to do something?5210 (83.8)6 (0.1)
Perseverance1. Does this child always perform tasks independently?4583 (73.8)8 (0.1)
2. Does this child always keep at a task until they are finished?3348 (53.9)9 (0.1)
3. Does this child need constant reminding to finish something off?a4468 (71.9)10 (0.2)
4. Does this child get easily distracted from a task?a4664 (75.0)14 (0.2)
Approaches to Learning1. Does this child show more curiosity about something new in comparison to something familiar?4976 (80.1)10 (0.2)
2. Does this child investigate/explore the function of a new toy/game/puzzle or object?4900 (78.8)9 (0.1)
3. Is this child always wanting to learn new things?4850 (78.0)12 (0.2)
4. When in an unfamiliar environment with a familiar person present, does this child feel free to explore?3611 (58.1)15 (0.2)
5. Is this child diligent in their approach to a new job or task?3840 (61.8)19 (0.3)
Numeracy1. Can this child recognise geometric shapes (e.g. triangle, circle, square)?3322 (53.5)13 (0.2)
2. Can this child name and identify at least 3 colours?4278 (68.8)8 (0.1)
3. Can this child sort and classify objects by common characteristics (e.g. shape, colour, size)?3218 (51.8)12 (0.2)
4. Can this child name and recognise the symbol of all numbers from 1 to 10?3020 (48.6)15 (0.2)
5. Can this child count to 10?5053 (81.3)7 (0.1)
6. Can this child count to 20?2073 (33.4)9 (0.1)
7. Can this child count to 100?430 (6.9)13 (0.2)
8. Does this child know that a horse is taller than a dog?4464 (71.8)11 (0.2)
9. Does this child know the order of the day (e.g. morning, then afternoon and then evening)?2411 (38.8)17 (0.3)
10. Does this child understand the concepts of yesterday, today and tomorrow?1812 (29.2)14 (0.2)
11. Does this child know that a vehicle weighs more than a cup?4197 (67.5)11 (0.2)
12. Does this child know that the number 8 is bigger than the number 2?2258 (36.3)16 (0.3)
Reading1. Does this child know the sounds of three letters of the alphabet? (phonics)3932 (63.5)16 (0.3)
2. Can this child identify at least 3 letters of the alphabet?3263 (52.5)13 (0.2)
3. Can this child identify at least 10 letters of the alphabet?2232 (35.9)14 (0.2)
4. Can this child hold a book and turn the pages in the right way?3811 (61.3)10 (0.2)
5. Can this child follow reading directions (i.e. left to right, top to bottom)?1799 (28.9)9 (0.1)
6. Can this child read at least 4 popular words?2263 (36.4)13 (0.2)
Writing1. Can this child draw something identifiable? (e.g. a stick person)3531 (56.8)9 (0.1)
2. Can this child copy (trace) the shape of a letter (e.g. A, E, F)?3392 (54.6)5 (0.1)
3. Can this child write their own name?2428 (39.1)9 (0.1)
4. Can this child write short and simple words?1452 (23.4)9 (0.1)
6. Can this child write short and simple sentences?778 (12.5)9 (0.1)
  1. Note: areverse scored items