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Table 2 Classification of CU findings into significant or mild conspicuities, according to pathological neurodevelopmental sequelae

From: Analyses of pathological cranial ultrasound findings in neonates that fall outside recent indication guidelines: results of a population-based birth cohort: survey of neonates in Pommerania (SNiP-study)

Cranial ultrasoundNeurodevelopmental outcome in the literature
Significant conspicuities
 Corpus callosum malformationMild behavioral problems to severe neurological disorders (e.g., autistic behavior), associated genetic syndromes, aneuploidies, malformations, inborn errors of metabolism [13,14,15]
 Bilateral/multiple cyst
(2–5 bilateral and/or unilateral cysts (max. 0.3–1.5 cm))
Congenital infection or genetic anomaly [16]
 IVH, II-IV°Epileptic disorders, perceptual difficulties, cognitive deficiencies, mental handicaps [10, 16, 17]
 HydrocephalusAssociated congenital brain anomalies, post-hemorrhagic, infection with neuromotor disorders, hearing loss, blindness, epilepsy [18, 19]
 Periventricular leukomalacia (> 5 cysts > 0.3 cm, along the corpus callosum)Global delay in myelination correlated with cerebral palsy and cognitive/behavioral abnormalities [10, 20]
Mild conspicuities
 Ventricular asymmetry/enlargement
(> 0.5 cm difference of vertical distance between sulcus thalamicus and corpus callosum in two sagittal views at the level of the plexus choroideus in the lateral ventricles)
Normal variants or variants associated with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders [22,23,21]
 Unilateral/singular cystNo screening necessary [16]
 Increasing echogenicityPhysiologic immaturity of myelination of preterm infants or associated with hemorrhages, edemas etc. (follow-up necessary) [19]
 IVH I°No increase of conspicuous neurological impairment [18]
  1. CU: cranial ultrasound, IVH: intraventricular hemorrhage