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Table 1 Established AIUM indications for a neonatal CU and corresponding variables as predictors measured in the SNiP study [5]

From: Analyses of pathological cranial ultrasound findings in neonates that fall outside recent indication guidelines: results of a population-based birth cohort: survey of neonates in Pommerania (SNiP-study)

AIUM Indications for CU in neonatescorresponding variables in the SNiP study
Hemorrhage or parenchymal abnormalities in preterm and term infantsbirthweight < 1500 g and < 30 WG [3], vacuum or forceps delivery [8], systemic hypertension or hypotension, or perinatal asphyxia [9]
Hydrocephalussigns (e.g., macrocephaly, curved fontanel, split cranial sutures) [10]
Vascular abnormalitiesprenatal diagnosis (e.g., vascular malformations, aneurysms)
Possible or suspected hypoxic ischemic encephalopathysymptoms (e.g., seizures, hypotonia, coma, respiratory distress), UA pH < 7.0, APGAR value of 0–3 at > 5 min [3]
Congenital malformationsprenatal diagnoses (e.g., cysts, cerebellar hypoplasia) [11], chromosomal anomalies or malformations, or metabolic diseases [12]
Congenital or acquired brain infectionsmycoplasma, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, streptococcus
Signs and/or symptoms of central nervous system disorderssymptoms (e.g., facial malformations, macrocephaly, microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction) [5]
Traumacephalo/subgaleal hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage
Craniosynostosiscraniosynostosis
Previously documented abnormalities, including prenatal abnormalitiesprenatal diagnoses (e.g., partial/complete agenesis of corpus callosum)
Patients treated with hypothermia, ECMO, or other support systemshypothermia, ECMO etc.
  1. AIUM: The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine; CU: cerebral ultrasound; SNiP: Survey of Neonates in Pomerania; WG: weeks of gestation; UA pH: umbilical arterial cord blood pH; APGAR score: assessment score for appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration of the neonate; ECMO: extra corporal membrane oxygenation