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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the whole sample and statistical comparisons of clinical variables between GI and No-GI groups

From: Vocal and motor behaviors as a possible expression of gastrointestinal problems in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Clinical variablesValuesGINo-GIp (No-GI vs GI)
Age (years) mean ± SD4.14 ± 1.084.06 (1.05)4.19 (1.10)NS
Males n (%)71 (83.5%)26 (36.6%)45 (63.4%)NS
Females n (%)14 (16.5%)4 (28.6%)10 (71.4%)NS
ADOS-2
 CSS Social Affect (mean ± SD)6.43 ± 2.056.77 (1.91)6.29 (2.05)NS
 CSS Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (mean ± SD)8.23 ± 1.468.43 (1.48)8.20 (1.45)NS
 CSS Total (mean ± SD)7.05 ± 1.857.43 (2.01)6.95 (1.68)NS
GMDS-ER (65 out of 85 children were evaluable with this test)
 Locomotor (mean ± SD)71.85 ± 18.5370.92 (16.19)72.88 (20.03)NS
 Personal-Social (mean ± SD)54.27 ± 20.0048.96 (17.48)57.55 (20.72)NS
 Hearing and Speech (mean ± SD)46.03 ± 22.3842.87 (20.20)47.07 (23.32)NS
 Eye-Hand Coordination (mean ± SD)66.64 ± 22.1362.32 (20.07)67.72 (24.34)NS
 Performance (mean ± SD)70.75 ± 23.3367.80 (21.62)72.26 (24.36)NS
VABS-II
 Communication (mean ± SD)50.86 ± 17.7945.47 (15.22)54.46 (18.80)0.0274
 Daily Living (mean ± SD)66.56 ± 17.0761.13 (14.29)69.07 (17.51)0.0365
 Socialization (mean ± SD)63.55 ± 15.0260.93 (13.59)65.18 (15.83)NS
 Motor Skills (mean ± SD)71.88 ± 17.8569.83 (16.34)74.71 (17.69)NS
 Composite Score (mean ± SD)59.40 ± 19.5354.40 (18.51)62.29 (20.03)NS
CBCL 1.5–5
 Internalizing Problems (mean ± SD)63.85 ± 9.0667.48 (7.80)62.06 (9.04)0.0065
 Externalizing Problems (mean ± SD)57.10 ± 9.0959.07 (7.55)55.82 (9.61)NS
 Total Problems (mean ± SD)62.28 ± 10.5165.35 (10.02)60.62 (10.30)0.0469
RBS-R
 Total Score (mean ± SD)19.87 ± 13.8720.07 (13.27)19.76 (14.29)NS
 Total Endorsed Score (mean ± SD)12.76 ± 7.2713.03 (6.78)12.62 (7.57)NS
 Global Score (mean ± SD)44.18 ± 27.2460.24 (20.77)38.12 (27.06)0.0016
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2, CSS Calibrated Severity Score, GMDS-ER Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised, VABS-II Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II, CBCL 1.5–5 Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, RBS-R Repetitive Behaviors Scale Revised
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