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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the whole sample and statistical comparisons of clinical variables between GI and No-GI groups

From: Vocal and motor behaviors as a possible expression of gastrointestinal problems in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Clinical variables Values GI No-GI p (No-GI vs GI)
Age (years) mean ± SD 4.14 ± 1.08 4.06 (1.05) 4.19 (1.10) NS
Males n (%) 71 (83.5%) 26 (36.6%) 45 (63.4%) NS
Females n (%) 14 (16.5%) 4 (28.6%) 10 (71.4%) NS
ADOS-2
 CSS Social Affect (mean ± SD) 6.43 ± 2.05 6.77 (1.91) 6.29 (2.05) NS
 CSS Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (mean ± SD) 8.23 ± 1.46 8.43 (1.48) 8.20 (1.45) NS
 CSS Total (mean ± SD) 7.05 ± 1.85 7.43 (2.01) 6.95 (1.68) NS
GMDS-ER (65 out of 85 children were evaluable with this test)
 Locomotor (mean ± SD) 71.85 ± 18.53 70.92 (16.19) 72.88 (20.03) NS
 Personal-Social (mean ± SD) 54.27 ± 20.00 48.96 (17.48) 57.55 (20.72) NS
 Hearing and Speech (mean ± SD) 46.03 ± 22.38 42.87 (20.20) 47.07 (23.32) NS
 Eye-Hand Coordination (mean ± SD) 66.64 ± 22.13 62.32 (20.07) 67.72 (24.34) NS
 Performance (mean ± SD) 70.75 ± 23.33 67.80 (21.62) 72.26 (24.36) NS
VABS-II
 Communication (mean ± SD) 50.86 ± 17.79 45.47 (15.22) 54.46 (18.80) 0.0274
 Daily Living (mean ± SD) 66.56 ± 17.07 61.13 (14.29) 69.07 (17.51) 0.0365
 Socialization (mean ± SD) 63.55 ± 15.02 60.93 (13.59) 65.18 (15.83) NS
 Motor Skills (mean ± SD) 71.88 ± 17.85 69.83 (16.34) 74.71 (17.69) NS
 Composite Score (mean ± SD) 59.40 ± 19.53 54.40 (18.51) 62.29 (20.03) NS
CBCL 1.5–5
 Internalizing Problems (mean ± SD) 63.85 ± 9.06 67.48 (7.80) 62.06 (9.04) 0.0065
 Externalizing Problems (mean ± SD) 57.10 ± 9.09 59.07 (7.55) 55.82 (9.61) NS
 Total Problems (mean ± SD) 62.28 ± 10.51 65.35 (10.02) 60.62 (10.30) 0.0469
RBS-R
 Total Score (mean ± SD) 19.87 ± 13.87 20.07 (13.27) 19.76 (14.29) NS
 Total Endorsed Score (mean ± SD) 12.76 ± 7.27 13.03 (6.78) 12.62 (7.57) NS
 Global Score (mean ± SD) 44.18 ± 27.24 60.24 (20.77) 38.12 (27.06) 0.0016
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2, CSS Calibrated Severity Score, GMDS-ER Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised, VABS-II Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II, CBCL 1.5–5 Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5, RBS-R Repetitive Behaviors Scale Revised