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Table 4 Summary of Univariate Analyses of Potential Influencing Factors

From: Neonatal body composition: crossectional study in healthy term singletons in Germany

 nBirth weight, g Mean (SD)p*BF%, % Mean (SD)p*FFM, g Mean (SD)p*FM, g Mean (SD)p*
All2713389 (440) 10.6 (4.0) 2857 (330) 347 (157) 
Gender  0.0045 0.0012 < 0.0001 0.053
 Male1183475 (446) 9.7 (3.8) 2957 (328) 326 (149) 
 Female1533322 (426) 11.3 (4.0) 2780 (311) 363 (161) 
Gestational age (weeks)  < 0.001 0.2276 < 0.0001 0.0116
 37.0–37.9132915 (314) 9.5 (3.4) 2471 (162) 266 (121) 
 38.0–38.9513140 (407) 10.4 (3.6) 2661 (297) 316 (133) 
 39.0–39.9783410 (391) 11.0 (4.5) 2849 (272) 362 (171) 
 40.0–40.9933470 (419) 10.1 (3.8) 2949 (327) 336 (148) 
 > 41.0363656 (401) 11.6 (3.8) 3054 (291) 412 (167) 
Postnatal age at BC measurement (h)  0.331 0.7539 0.161 0.976
 < 24383438 (482) 10.4 (4.2) 2966 (372) 352 (171) 
 24.0–47.91253424 (446) 10.4 (4.0) 2883 (316) 346 (159) 
 48.0–71.9763345 (415) 10.7 (4.0) 2805 (323) 342 (155) 
 72.0–95.9323297 (421) 11.2 (3.7) 2749 (308) 355 (140) 
Pre-pregnangcy BMI (kg/m2)  0.0006 0.0089 0.0169 0.0007
 < 18.572939 (413) 8.7 (3.9) 2563 (272) 251 (132) 
 18.5–24.91933372 (413) 10.3 (3.8) 2853 (324) 335 (146) 
 25.0–29.9463383 (498) 10.7 (4.0) 2842 (361) 351 (155) 
 > 30.0253657 (413) 13.0 (4.6) 2996 (271) 459 (197) 
GWG IOM Recommendation  0.013 0.0258 0.0233 0.0102
 Insufficient553289 (463) 10.3 (4.2) 2794 (349) 327 (164) 
 Adequate1003342 (423) 9.9 (3.9) 2832 (314) 319 (145) 
 Excessive1163477 (432) 11.3 (3.8) 2908 (328) 380 (157) 
Smoking during Pregnancy  0.0014 0.1133 0.0112 0.047
 No255**3404 (435) 10.7 (4.0) 2866 (328) 351 (157) 
 Yes82900 (421) 8.4 (4.1) 2537 (307) 240 (131) 
Parity  0.1111 0.0632 0.2341 0.0413
 11493356 (419) 10.1 (3.7) 2845 (324) 325 (145) 
 2823473 (425) 11.3 (4.0) 2903 (317) 377 (154) 
  ≥ 3403339 (529) 11.1 (4.4) 2808 (372) 365 (191) 
Type of delivery  0.4376 0.0563 0.0903 0.2500
 Vaginal1753404 (423) 10.2 (4.0) 2892 (325) 339 (158) 
 Caesarean section963361 (472) 11.2 (3.8) 2793 (331) 361 (153) 
  1. Abbreviations: BC Body composition, BMI Body mass index, BF% Proportion of fat mass/total body, FM Fat mass, FFM Fat free Mass, GWG Gestational weight gain, IOM Institute of Medicine
  2. * p-values by t-test or ANOVA if normally distributed or Wilcoxon-test if not normally distributed
  3. On Tukey multiple comparison post hoc test the following statistically significant differences on multi-group comparison were identified:
  4. Gestational Age (GA, weeks)
  5. Birth weight: GA 37–38 vs. GA 39–40 (p = 0.0005), GA 37–38 vs. GA 40–41 (p < 0.0001), GA37–38 vs. GA > 41 (p < 0.001), GA 38–39 vs. GA 39–40 (p = 0.0022), GA 38–39 vs. GA 40–41 (p < 0.0001), GA 38–39 vs. GA > 41 (p < 0.0001), GA 39–40 vs. GA > 41 (p = 0.0221)
  6. FFM: GA 37–38 vs. GA 39–40 (p = 0.0002), GA 37–38 vs. 40–41 (p < 0.0001), GA 37–38 vs. > 41 (p < 0.0001), GA 38–39 vs. GA 39–40 (p = 0.0014), GA 38–39 vs.40–41 (p < 0.0001), GA 38–39 vs.GA > 41 (p < 0.0001)
  7. FM: GA 37–38 vs. GA > 41 (p = 0.0309)
  8. Pre-pregnancy BMI category (< 18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9, > 30):
  9. Birth weight: < 18.5 vs. 18.5–24.9 (p = 0.0449), < 18.5 vs. > 30 (p = 0.0007), 18.5–24.9 vs. > 30 (p = 0.0104)
  10. BF%:18.5–24.9 vs. > 30 (p = 0.0091)
  11. FFM: < 18.5 vs. > 30 (p = 0.011)
  12. FM: < 18.5 vs. > 30 (p = 0.0089), 18.5–24.9 vs. > 30 (p = 0.0009), 25.0–29.9 (p = 0.0246)
  13. Gestational weight gain category (insufficient, adequate, excessive):
  14. Birth weight: insufficient vs. excessive (p = 0.0235)
  15. BF%: adequate vs. excessive (p = 0.0234)
  16. FFM: insufficient vs. excessive (p = 0.0224)
  17. FM: adequate vs. excessive (p = 0.0127)
  18. Parity (1,2, ≥3):
  19. FM: 1vs.2 (p = 0.0445)
  20. **no smoking status data available in n = 8