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Table 1 Characteristics of infants 1–23 months of age with pertussis-associated pneumonia in Gaborone, Botswana, 2012–2016

From: The prevalence and clinical characteristics of pertussis-associated pneumonia among infants in Botswana

Clinical informationCase 1Case 2Case 3Case 4
 Year admitted2013201420152014
 Maternal age (years)39264239
 Infant age (months)1224
 Birth weight < 2500 gNoNoYesNo
HIV exposure statusHUUHEUHEUHEU
In utero ART exposureNoneNoneHAARTHAART
Infant zidovudineNoYesYesYes
Nutrition and infant feeding practices
 Duration of breast feeding (months)2005
 Severe malnutritionNoNoNoNo
Vaccination status and prophylaxis
 Pertussis-containing vaccine (DPT-HEPB-HIB) doses received0113
 Cotrimoxazole prophylaxisNANoNoNo
Clinical features
 Duration of cough prior to admission (days)147143
 WBC (*109 cells/L)20.4722.39.5
 WHO severe diseaseaNoNoYesNo
 Hypoxia on admissioncNoNoNoNo
Hospital course and outcome
 O2 requirement (days)11040
 Admission to ICUYesNoNoNo
 Intubation (days)4000
 TreatmentdThird generation cephalosporinNoneThird generation cephalosporin + vancomycinNone
 LOS (days)15282
  1. Abbreviations: M Male, F Female, HEU HIV-exposed uninfected, HUU HIV-unexposed uninfected, NA Not applicable, WHO World Health Organization, LOS Length of stay, ART Anti-retroviral therapy, HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy, URI Upper respiratory infection, CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure, ICU Intensive care unit, LOS Length of stay
  2. aPneumonia accompanied by WHO danger signs (central cyanosis, convulsions, inability to drink, or abnormal sleepiness)
  3. bWeight-for-length < −3 standard deviation on standard WHO growth curves, mid-upper arm circumference < 115 mm (for children < 6 months of age), or bilateral edema of nutritional origin
  4. cHypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation < 90% on room air
  5. dThe decision to administer antibiotics and choice of antibiotic was made by the pediatrician