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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study children with caregiver-reported attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or neurotypical (NT) development

From: Prenatal pet keeping and caregiver-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder through preadolescence in a United States birth cohort

Covariate NT
(N = 534)
ADHD
(N = 93)
P a
Maternal Characteristic Mean ± SD or N (%)  
 Age at delivery (years) 30.1 ± 5.2 30.0 ± 5.3 0.814
 Race    0.980
  White 127 (23.8%) 23 (24.7%)  
  Black 325 (60.9%) 56 (60.2%)  
  Mixed/Other 82 (15.4%) 14 (15.1%)  
 Marital status    0.634
  Unmarried 176 (33.0%) 33 (35.5%)  
  Married 358 (67.0%) 60 (64.5%)  
 Household income    0.208
  < $20,000 53 (9.9%) 14 (15.1%)  
  $20,000- < $40,000 118 (22.1%) 25 (26.9%)  
  $40,000- < $80,000 142 (26.6%) 27 (29.0%)  
  $80,000- < $100,000 75 (14.0%) 10 (10.8%)  
  ≥ $100,000 83 (15.5%) 7 (7.5%)  
  Refused to answer 63 (11.8%) 10 (10.8%)  
 Education    0.097
  < High school diploma 20 (3.7%) 2 (2.2%)  
  High school diploma 81 (15.2%) 14 (15.1%)  
  Some college 235 (44.0%) 53 (57.0%)  
  ≥ Bachelor’s degree 198 (37.1%) 24 (25.8%)  
 Smoked during pregnancy    0.600
  No 491 (91.9%) 84 (90.3%)  
  Yes 43 (8.1%) 9 (9.7%)  
 Prenatal ETS exposure    0.303
  No 411 (77.0%) 67 (72.0%)  
  Yes 123 (23.0%) 26 (28.0%)  
 Prenatal antibiotic use    0.774
  No 192 (45.2%) 38 (46.9%)  
  Yes 233 (54.8%) 43 (53.1%)  
 Prenatal antifungal use    0.004
  No 356 (83.8%) 57 (70.4%)  
  Yes 69 (16.2%) 24 (29.6%)  
 BMI from first prenatal visit (kg/m2)b 30.3 ± 7.7
(N = 495)
33.1 ± 9.6
(N = 87)
0.002
 Prenatal indoor dog(s)    0.308
  No 400 (74.9%) 65 (69.9%)  
  Yes 134 (25.1%) 28 (30.1%)  
 Prenatal indoor cat(s)    0.863
  No 444 (83.1%) 78 (83.9%)  
  Yes 90 (16.9%) 15 (16.1%)  
Child Characteristic
 Mode of delivery    0.513
  Vaginal 332 (62.3%) 54 (58.7%)  
  C-section 201 (37.7%) 38 (41.3%)  
 Firstborn    0.343
  No 332 (62.2%) 53 (57.0%)  
  Yes 202 (37.8%) 40 (43.0%)  
 Gestational age at delivery (weeks)b 38.8 ± 1.6
(N = 529)
38.3 ± 2.2
(N = 91)
0.007
 Preterm birth    0.018
  No 492 (93.0%) 78 (85.7%)  
  Yes 37 (7.0%) 13 (14.3%)  
 Birthweight (g)b 3352 ± 573
(N = 514)
3300 ± 680
(N = 84)
0.453
 Low birth weight    0.229
  No 483 (94.0%) 76 (90.5%)  
  Yes 31 (6.0%) 8 (9.5%)  
 Child sex    < 0.001
  Male 237 (44.4%) 69 (74.2%)  
  Female 297 (55.6%) 24 (25.8%)  
 Child age at 10–12-year visit (years) 10.3 ± 0.9 10.3 ± 1.0 0.646
  1. BMI body mass index, ETS environmental tobacco smoke, SD standard deviation
  2. aCalculated using chi-square test for categorical covariates and analysis of variance for continuous covariates. Bold values indicate statistically significant P<0.05
  3. bContinuous covariates with missing data, sample size is presented