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Table 4 Prenatal exposures and pubertal timing, measured by HD:SDSa, when further adjusting for childhood BMI at 7 years in children born 2000–2003, the Danish National Birth Cohort, Denmark

From: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, and alcohol intake in pregnancy in relation to pubertal timing in the children

  Model 1b: Adjusted difference in HD:SDS when restricting to information on childhood BMI Model 2c: Adjusted difference in HD:SDS when also adjusting for childhood BMI
Prenatal exposures Difference 95% CI Difference 95% CI
Boys (n = 13,674)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI
  < 18.5 kg/m2 −0.17 −0.26, − 0.08 − 0.12 − 0.20, − 0.03
  18.5–24.9 kg/m2 Ref   Ref  
  25.0–29.9 kg/m2 0.12 0.07, 0.16 0.06 0.01, 0.10
  30.0+ kg/m2 0.24 0.18, 0.31 0.13 0.06, 0.19
  Trend analysis (kg/m2) 0.023 0.018, 0.027 0.012 0.007, 0.016
 Smoking in pregnancy
  Non-smoker Ref   Ref  
  Stopped smoking 0.00 −0.05, 0.06 −0.02 −0.07, 0.04
  1–9 daily cigarettes −0.01 −0.07, 0.06 −0.05 −0.12, 0.01
  10–14 daily cigarettes 0.01 −0.09, 0.11 −0.04 −0.13, 0.06
  15+ daily cigarettes 0.01 −0.13, 0.14 −0.05 −0.18, 0.08
  Trend analysis (group) 0.001 −0.018, 0.021 −0.016 −0.036, 0.003
 Alcohol in pregnancy
  Abstainers Ref   Ref  
  < 1 units weekly 0.00 −0.04, 0.04 0.00 −0.04, 0.04
  1–3 units weekly 0.00 −0.06, 0.05 0.00 −0.05, 0.05
  > 3 units weekly −0.12 −0.23, − 0.01 − 0.11 − 0.22, 0.00
  Trend analysis (units) −0.018 −0.035, − 0.002 − 0.017 − 0.033, 0.000
Girls (n = 11,550)
 Pre-pregnancy BMI
  < 18.5 kg/m2 −0.02 −0.11, 0.07 0.05 −0.04, 0.14
  18.5–24.9 kg/m2 Ref   Ref  
  25.0–29.9 kg/m2 0.10 0.06, 0.15 0.04 −0.01, 0.08
  30.0+ kg/m2 0.16 0.09, 0.24 0.05 −0.02, 0.11
  Trend analysis (kg/m2) 0.018 0.014, 0.023 0.007 0.002, 0.011
 Smoking in pregnancy
  Non-smoker Ref   Ref  
  Stopped smoking −0.05 −0.11, 0.00 −0.08 −0.14, − 0.02
  1–9 daily cigarettes 0.03 −0.04, 0.10 −0.03 −0.09, 0.04
  10–14 daily cigarettes 0.05 −0.06, 0.15 0.00 −0.10, 0.10
  15+ daily cigarettes 0.04 −0.10, 0.19 −0.02 −0.16, 0.12
  Trend analysis (group) 0.009 −0.012, 0.029 −0.012 −0.032, 0.008
 Alcohol in pregnancy
  Abstainers    Ref  
  < 1 units weekly −0.03 −0.07, 0.01 −0.03 −0.07, 0.01
  1–3 units weekly −0.06 −0.11, 0.00 −0.06 −0.12, − 0.01
  > 3 units weekly 0.02 −0.11, 0.14 0.00 −0.12, 0.12
  Trend analysis (units) −0.012 −0.029, 0.006 −0.014 −0.031, 0.003
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, CI Confidence interval, Ref Reference, HD:SDS Height difference in standard deviations
  2. aA negative HD:SDS indicates later pubertal timing, and a positive HD:SDS indicates earlier pubertal timing
  3. bModel 1 is restricted to having information on childhood BMI and adjusted for highest social class of parents, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal age at menarche and all other exposures (in categories) in this table
  4. cModel 2 is adjusted for childhood BMI, highest social class of parents, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal age at menarche and all other exposures (in categories) in this table