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Table 2 Normal and pathological liver echogenicity / normal and elevated serum liver enzymes. Results are based on multivariable logistic regression analysis

From: Increased liver echogenicity and liver enzymes are associated with extreme obesity, adolescent age and male gender: analysis from the German/Austrian/Swiss obesity registry APV

  Normal liver echogenicity Pathological liver echogenicity Normal liver enzymes (< 25 U/L) Elevated liver Enzymes (> 25 U/L) Normal liver enzymes (< 50 U/L) Elevated liver Enzymes (> 50 U/L)
n (%) n = 575 (56%) n = 458 (44%) n = 369 (36%) n = 664 (64%) n = 859 (83%) n = 174 (17%)
Gender female n (%) 310 (54%) 209 (46%) 123 (33%) 391 (59%) 454 (53%) 65 (37%)
male n (%) 265 (46%) 249 (54%) 246 (67%) 273 (41%) 405 (47%) 109 (63%)
Age 4–8.9 years n (%) 68 (12%) 33 (7%) 36 (10%) 65 (10%) 89 (10%) 12 (7%)
9–13.9 years n (%) 309 (54%) 203 (44%) 192 (52%) 320 (48%) 438 (51%) 74 (42%)
14–18 years n (%) 198 (34%) 222 (49%) 141 (38%) 279 (42%) 332 (39%) 88 (51%)
BMI 90.-97. percentile n (%) 57 (10%) 17 (4%) 46 (13%) 28 (4%) 73 (8%) 1 (1%)
97.-99.5. percentile n (%) 226 (39%) 114 (25%) 134 (36%) 206 (31%) 298 (35%) 42 (24%)
> 99.5. percentile n (%) 292 (51%) 327 (71%) 189 (51%) 430 (65%) 488 (57%) 131 (75%)
Obesity related Co-morbidities IGM n (%) 11 (2%) 10 (2%) 5 (1%) 16 (3%) 12 (2%) 9 (6%)
dyslipidemia n (%) 27 (5%) 36 (8%) 16 (4%) 47 (7%) 49 (6%) 14 (8%)
arterial hypertension n (%) 227 (41%) 193 (45%) 123 (35%) 297 (47%) 343 (42%) 77 (47%)
Tanner stage Breast for girls n (%) 173 (55%) 146 (45%) 156 (49%) 163 (51%) 277 (87%) 42 (13%)
Tanner stage 0 n (%) 3 (2%) 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 3 (2%) 4 (2%) 0 (0%)
Tanner stage 1 n (%) 34 (20%) 22 (15%) 32 (20%) 24 (15%) 51 (18%) 5 (12%)
Tanner stage 2 n (%) 25 (14%) 19 (13%) 22 (14%) 22 (13%) 38 (14%) 6 (14%)
Tanner stage 3 n (%) 35 (20%) 17 (12%) 25 (16%) 27 (17%) 47 (17%) 5 (12%)
Tanner stage 4 n (%) 28 (16%) 31 (21%) 25 (16%) 34 (21%) 48 (17%) 11 (26%)
Tanner stage 5 n (%) 48 (28%) 56 (38%) 51 (33%) 53 (32%) 89 (32%) 15 (36%)
Tanner stage Genitalia for boys n (%) 144 (49%) 152 (51%) 71 (24%) 225 (76%) 236 (80%) 60 (20%)
Tanner stage 0 n (%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (0%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%)
Tanner stage 1 n (%) 33 (23%) 37 (24%) 24 (34%) 46 (20%) 59 (25%) 11 (18%)
Tanner stage 2 n (%) 40 (28%) 43 (28%) 25 (35%) 58 (26%) 65 (27%) 18 (30%)
Tanner stage 3 n (%) 36 (25%) 25 (17%) 12 (17%) 49 (22%) 50 (21%) 11 (18%)
Tanner stage 4 n (%) 27 (18%) 39 (26%) 8 (11%) 58 (26%) 54 (23%) 12 (20%)
Tanner stage 5 n (%) 7 (5%) 8 (5%) 2 (3%) 13 (6%) 7 (3%) 8 (14%)
Tanner stage Pubic hair girls n (%) 193 (56%) 153 (44%) 167 (48%) 179 (52%) 302 (87%) 44 (13%)
Tanner stage 0 n (%) 4 (2%) 3 (2%) 2 (1%) 5 (3%) 7 (2%) 0 (0%)
Tanner stage 1 n (%) 41 (21%) 26 (17%) 37 (22%) 30 (17%) 61 (20%) 6 (14%)
Tanner stage 2 n (%) 32 (17%) 16 (11%) 21 (13%) 27 (15%) 39 (13%) 9 (20%)
Tanner stage 3 n (%) 34 (18%) 15 (10%) 28 (17%) 21 (12%) 47 (15%) 2 (5%)
Tanner stage 4 n (%) 31 (16%) 31 (20%) 27 (16%) 35 (19%) 50 (17%) 12 (27%)
Tanner stage 5 n (%) 48 (25%) 60 (39%) 50 (30%) 58 (32%) 93 (31%) 15 (34%)
Tanner stage 6 n (%) 3 (1%) 2 (1%) 2 (1%) 3 (2%) 5 (2%) 0 (0%)
Tanner stage Pubic hair boys n (%) 157 (52%) 145 (48%) 62 (21%) 240 (79%) 234 (77%) 68 (23%)
Tanner stage 0 n (%) 1 (1%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 2 (1%) 2 (1%) 0 (0%)
Tanner stage 1 n (%) 39 (25%) 42 (29%) 22 (35%) 59 (24%) 65 (28%) 16 (24%)
Tanner stage 2 n (%) 40 (25%) 31 (21%) 23 (37%) 48 (20%) 56 (24%) 15 (22%)
Tanner stage 3 n (%) 38 (24%) 20 (14%) 9 (15%) 49 (20%) 47 (20%) 11 (16%)
Tanner stage 4 n (%) 28 (18%) 39 (27%) 5 (8%) 62 (26%) 54 (23%) 13 (19%)
Tanner stage 5 n (%) 10 (6%) 12 (8%) 3 (5%) 19 (8%) 10 (4%) 12 (18%)
Tanner stage 6 n (%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (1%) 0 (0%) 1 (1%)
  1. n (number), percent (%), BMI Body Mass Index, IGM Impaired Glucose Metabolism