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Table 1 Key clinical parameters

From: An economic analysis of human milk supplementation for very low birth weight babies in the USA

Description Base case [reference] Sensitivity analysis
Lower cost scenario Higher cost scenario
Probability of event in the usual practice of care group (%)
 Necrotising Enterocolitis Of which surgically treated 16.7 [12] 17.2 [5] 16.7 [12]
63.5 [12] 68.8 [5] 63.5 [12]
 Late onset sepsis 30.3 [12] 34.4 [5] 30.3 [12]
 Mortality (during initial hospital stay) 17.2 [12] 7.5 [5] 17.2 [12]
 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 56.3 [12] 30.1 [5] 56.3 [12]
 Retinopathy of prematurity 9.0 [12] 10.7 [13] 9.0 [12]
Relative risk of event in EHMD group
 Necrotising Enterocolitis 0.31 [5] 0.31 [5] 0.41 [12]
 Late onset sepsis 0.87 a [5] 0.63 [12] 0.87 a [5]
 Mortality (during initial hospital stay) 0.79 [12] 0.79 [12] 0.24 [5]
 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia 0.99 [5] 0.85 [12] 0.99 [5]
 Retinopathy of prematurity 0.15 [13] 0.15 [13] 0.58 [12]
Probability of event independent of treatment group (%)
 Short bowel syndrome (following surgical NEC only) 15.7 [14]
 Cerebral palsyb
  No NEC or late onset sepsis 14.8c [15]
  Following late onset sepsis 14.8c [15]
  Following NEC (odds ratio) 1.55 [15]
 Reduction in IQ points following:
  NEC 11 [16]
  Late onset Sepsis 9 [17]
  1. Abbreviations: EHMD Exclusive Human Milk Diet, NEC Necrotising Enterocolitis
  2. Notes: adata for sepsis rather than late onset sepsis specifically; bWhen an infant has both NEC and late onset sepsis the higher of the two probabilities of developing CP is used; cControl group included late onset sepsis patients
  3. The ‘Favourable to EHMD’ column includes the data (RCT or cohort) under which EHMD would have the greatest relative benefits and cost savings. The favourable and least favourable data are included in sensitivity analyses