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Table 4 Moderating effect of maternal psychological distress on the relationship between paternal psychological distress and fathers’ involvement in childcare (quality/quality) (N = 1541)

From: Relationship between paternal psychological distress and involvement in childcare among fathers of preschool-aged children: mediating effect of maternal psychological distress

Variables Dependent variable: Fathers’ involvement in childcare (quality)
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
β t(p) β t(p) β t(p)
Father’s age −0.065 −2.57(.01) −.059 −2.30(.020) −.059 − 2.34(.020)
Education level 0.058 2.19(.029) .056 2.11(.035) .056 2.12(.035)
Religion 0.057 2.28(.023) .057 2.26(.024) .057 2.26(.024)
Smoking −0.080 −3.14(.002) −.075 −2.94(.003) −.075 − 2.93(.003)
Daily working hours −0.068 −2.67(.008) −.061 − 2.38(.017) −.061 − 2.37(.018)
Parenting stress −0.339 −13.41(<.001) −.302 −10.94(<.001) −.301 − 10.92(<.001)
Child’s age 0.060 2.41(.016) .06 2.43(.015) .06 2.44(.015)
Temperament (Emotionality) −0.042 −1.69(.092) −.034 −1.31(.191) −.034 − 1.31(.192)
Temperament (Activity) 0.034 1.35(.178) .029 1.16(.246) .029 1.15(.249)
Family household income 0.018 0.68(.499) .014 0.54(.558) .015 0.56(.573)
PPD    −.079 −2.74(.006) −.085 −2.68(.007)
MPD    −.026 −0.92(.358) −.03 −1.02(.309)
PPD*MPD      .014 0.44(.662)
R2 .170 .177 .177
Adjusted R2 .164 .170 .169
R2 change .170 .001 <.001
F(p) 28.193(<.001) 24.564(<.001) 22.676(<.001)
Durbin-Watson test    2.006
Variables Dependent variable: Fathers’ involvement in childcare (quantity)
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
β t(p) β t(p) β t(p)
Father’s age 0.055 −2.12(.034) −.053 −2.06(.04) 0.053 −2.06(.039)
Education level 0.028 1.04(.300) .026 0.97(.335) 0.025 0.92(.357)
Religion 0.096 3.67(<.001) .095 3.62(<.001) 0.095 3.62(<.001)
Smoking 0.044 −1.66(.096) −.043 −1.62(.106) 0.044 −1.64(.101)
Alcohol consumption 0.062 −2.35(.019) −.06 −2.28(.023) 0.058 −2.22(.026)
Daily working hours 0.309 11.73(<.001) −.304 11.46(<.001) 0.305 11.49(<.001)
Parenting stress −0.084 −3.25(.001) −.069 −2.41(.016) − 0.07 − 2.45(.015)
PPD    .006 0.19(.849) 0.024 0.71(.477)
MPD    −.07 −2.46(.014) 0.054 −1.77(.077)
PPD*MPD      0.043 −1.29(.196)
R2 .133 .137 .138
Adjusted R2 .128 .131 .131
R2 change .133 .137 .001
F(p) 28.584(<.001) 23.025(<.001) 20.901(<.001)
Durbin-Watson test    1.844
  1. PPD Paternal Psychological Distress, MPD Maternal Psychological Distress