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Table 1 Descriptive analysis of demographics and study variables (N = 1541)

From: Relationship between paternal psychological distress and involvement in childcare among fathers of preschool-aged children: mediating effect of maternal psychological distress

Variable Categories n % M ± SD Actual range
Father  
 Age (years)    36.24 ± 3.96 22–52
 Education level High school or less 412 27.5   
College 309 18.1   
University or higher 820 54.4   
 Religion No 931 60.1   
Yes 610 39.9   
 Alcohol consumption More than once a week 496 36.2   
Less than once a week 883 63.8   
 Smoking Non-smoker 761 49.7   
Smoker 775 50.3   
 Parenting stress     27.40 ± 6.63 11–51
 Daily working hours    8.04 ± 2.27 0–17.71
 Psychological distress Minimal 1187 77.2 5.26 ± 4.20 0–24
Significant 345 22.8
 Involvement in childcare (quality)     14.46 ± 2.63 4–20
 Involvement in childcare (quantity)     2.53 ± 1.62 0.14–14.86
Mother  
 Psychological distress Minimal 1069 69.4 5.79 ± 4.42 0–23
Significant 467 30.3
Child  
 Age (months)     38.18 ± 1.51 35–42
 Sex Male 779 50.6   
Female 762 49.4   
 Temperament Emotionality    14.35 ± 3.06 5–25
Activity    19.14 ± 3.00 5–25
Family  
 Household income I (lowest) 341 23.2   
II 369 27.0   
III 392 27.4   
IV (highest) 357 22.4   
  1. No. of respondents is unweighted and percent (%) is weighted; M ± SD = Mean and standard deviation