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Table 1 Means of HAZ and ECD scores and association between those by country

From: Physical growth: is it a good indicator of development in early childhood in low- and middle-income countries?

Country Mean HAZ(a) Mean ECD(b) Correlation(c) [95% CI] SMD(d) [95% CI]
Algeria − 0.70 5.90 0.05 [0.02;0.08] 0.01 [− 0.02;0.04]
Bangladesh − 1.90 5.67 0.21 [0.19;0.23] 0.14 [0.11;0.16]
Barbados 0.48 8.44 −0.03 [− 0.18;0.12] − 0.02 [− 0.15;0.10]
Belize − 0.93 7.24 0.15 [0.08;0.21] 0.05 [− 0.01;0.10]
Benin − 1.59 5.31 0.18 [0.15;0.21] 0.07 [0.04;0.10]
Bhutan −1.72 5.99 0.11 [0.07;0.15] 0.05 [0.01;0.10]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.35 7.40 0.06 [−0.00;0.12] 0.06 [0.02;0.11]
Burundi − 2.36 4.35 0.22 [0.18;0.26] 0.12 [0.08;0.17]
Cambodia −1.70 5.98 0.14 [0.09;0.19] 0.11 [0.06;0.16]
Cameroon −1.36 5.56 0.23 [0.20;0.27] 0.09 [0.06;0.11]
Central African Republic −1.96 4.74 0.11 [0.08;0.15] 0.07 [0.04;0.10]
Chad −1.62 4.44 0.11 [0.08;0.14] 0.05 [0.02;0.07]
Congo −1.30 4.80 0.10 [0.05;0.15] 0.06 [0.00;0.12]
Democratic Republic of Congo −2.05 4.81 0.15 [0.12;0.18] 0.07 [0.04;0.10]
El Salvador −0.89 6.41 0.15 [0.11;0.18] 0.08 [0.03;0.12]
Ghana −1.43 6.00 0.20 [0.17;0.24] 0.13 [0.08;0.18]
Guinea Bissau −1.38 5.12 0.14 [0.10;0.18] 0.07 [0.03;0.11]
Guyana −0.55 7.43 0.20 [0.15;0.26] 0.09 [0.04;0.14]
Honduras −1.36 5.98 0.15 [0.11;0.18] 0.02 [−0.02;0.06]
Iraq −1.01 5.66 0.05 [0.03;0.07] 0.03 [0.01;0.06]
Jordan −0.57 5.52 0.04 [0.00;0.08] 0.01 [− 0.07;0.09]
Kazakhstan −0.15 6.80 0.05 [0.01;0.10] 0.02 [− 0.02;0.06]
Kenya −1.47 5.64 0.16 [0.13;0.20] 0.08 [0.06;0.11]
Kosovo −0.29 6.68 0.07 [−0.01;0.15] 0.01 [− 0.06;0.09]
Kyrgyzstan −1.02 5.79 0.06 [0.01;0.11] 0.03 [− 0.02;0.09]
Lao −2.18 6.38 0.16 [0.13;0.19] 0.07 [0.04;0.09]
Lebanon −0.79 6.72 −0.02 [− 0.09;0.06] 0.01 [− 0.06;0.07]
Macedonia − 0.07 7.56 0.15 [0.06;0.23] 0.13 [0.04;0.22]
Malawi −1.79 5.30 0.09 [0.07;0.12] 0.04 [0.01;0.06]
Mali −1.42 5.24 0.10 [0.07;0.12] 0.04 [0.02;0.07]
Mauritania −1.29 5.51 0.16 [0.13;0.19] 0.08 [0.06;0.11]
Mexico −0.81 6.55 0.08 [0.05;0.12] 0.04 [−0.01;0.10]
Moldova −0.37 6.88 0.01 [−0.07;0.09] −0.05 [− 0.13;0.03]
Mongolia − 0.89 6.29 0.05 [0.01;0.09] 0.01 [−0.04;0.06]
Montenegro 0.37 7.44 0.12 [0.04;0.20] 0.05 [−0.02;0.13]
Nepal −2.01 5.56 0.24 [0.20;0.28] 0.11 [0.06;0.15]
Nigeria −1.78 5.69 0.36 [0.35;0.38] 0.10 [0.08;0.13]
Pakistan −1.88 5.64 0.32 [0.30;0.33] 0.16 [0.15;0.17]
Palestine −0.46 5.87 0.10 [0.07;0.14] 0.06 [0.03;0.10]
Paraguay −0.32 6.42 0.15 [0.11;0.20] 0.04 [−0.03;0.10]
Rwanda −1.71 5.54 0.17 [0.12;0.23] 0.06 [0.01;0.12]
Sao Tome and Principe −0.92 5.43 0.17 [0.10;0.24] 0.11 [0.03;0.18]
Serbia 0.48 7.70 0.16 [0.10;0.22] 0.07 [0.01;0.14]
Sierra Leone −2.12 4.64 0.12 [0.08;0.15] 0.06 [0.03;0.09]
St Lucia 0.09 7.85 0.05 [−0.15;0.24] −0.04 [− 0.20;0.13]
Suriname − 0.62 6.00 0.16 [0.09;0.22] 0.04 [−0.02;0.11]
Swaziland −1.26 5.63 0.17 [0.11;0.23] 0.08 [0.02;0.14]
Thailand −0.61 7.81 0.05 [0.01;0.08] 0.01 [−0.03;0.05]
Timor-Leste −1.85 5.33 0.08 [0.01;0.15] 0.01 [−0.04;0.07]
Togo −1.69 4.85 0.19 [0.15;0.24] 0.06 [0.01;0.11]
Trinidad and Tobago 0.06 8.16 0.04 [−0.06;0.13] 0.02 [−0.05;0.08]
Tunisia −0.40 6.03 0.04 [−0.02;0.10] 0.00 [−0.06;0.06]
Turkmenistan −0.67 6.85 0.09 [0.04;0.14] 0.07 [0.02;0.12]
Uganda −1.31 5.51 0.14 [0.09;0.19] 0.06 [0.02;0.10]
Zimbabwe −1.35 5.41 0.12 [0.09;0.15] 0.06 [0.03;0.09]
Median −1.26 5.87 0.12 0.06
  1. (a)Height-for-age Z score: calculated using the WHO Anthro Version 3.2.2 software (2011)
  2. (b)Early childhood development index
  3. (c)Pearson correlation coefficient between HAZ and standardised ECD score
  4. (d)Standardised mean difference: calculated using a multiple linear regression predicting standardised ECD scores from HAZ taking into account child sex, child age, and household wealth index
  5. Bolded correlation coefficient/SMD: statistically significant