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Table 1 Exposed infant and maternal-related characteristics by HIV positivity among HIV exposed infants in Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016 (n = 340)

From: HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

VariablesFrequency, [n, %]HIV statusP-value*
Positive, [n, %]Negative, [n, %]
Gender of infant
 Male175 (51.5)3 (1.7)172 (98.3) 
 Female165 (48.5)4 (2.4)161 (97.6)0.71
Residence
 Urban246 (72.4)6 (2.4)240 (97.6) 
 Rural94 (27.6)1 (1.1)93(98.9)0.68
Maternal education
 Illiterate129 (37.9)5 (3.9)124(96.1) 
 Primary & above211 (62.1)2 (0.9)209 (99.1)0.11
Maternal age (in years)
 18–2456 (1.5)1 (1.8)55 (98.2) 
 25–34234 (68.8)5 (2.1)229 (97.9) 
 35–4450 (14.7)1 (2.0)49 (98)NA
Maternal marital status
 Not married66 (19.4)4 (6.1)62 (93.9) 
 Married274 (80.6)3 (1.1)271 (98.9)0.029*
Maternal occupation
 Housewife260 (76.5)1(0.4)259 (99.6) 
 Government employee17 (5)1 (5.9)16 (94.1)NA
 Self-employed63 (18.5)5 (7.9)58 (92.1) 
Infant age at enrolment
 6 weeks-6 months338 (99.4)7 (2.1)331 (97.9) 
 6–18 months2 (0.6)0 (0)2 (100)NA
Place of delivery
 Institutional332 (97.6)7 (2.1)325 (97.9) 
 Home8 (2.4)0 (0)8 (100)NA
Infant Feeding pattern
 Exclusive breast-feeding337 (99.1)7 (2.1)330 (97.9) 
 Formula2 (0.6)0 (0)2 (100) 
 Mixed feeding1 (0.3)0 (0)1 (100)NA
Mode of delivery
 Normal323 (94.4)7 (2.2)316 (97.8) 
 Cesarean17 (5.6)0 (0)17 (100)NA
Infant birth weight (Kg)
 < 2.515 (4.4)0 (0)15 (100) 
 ≥ 2.5325 (95.6)7 (2.2)318 (97.8)NA
Infant ARV prophylaxis
 Not Received11 (3.2)5 (45.5)6 (54.5) 
 Received329 (96.8)2 (0.6)327 (99.4)0.001*
Maternal ART enrolment
 Enrolled333 (97.9)4 (1.2)329 (98.8) 
 Not enrolled7 (2.1)3 (42.9)4 (57.1)0.001*
PMTCT
 Option B+ and on ART335 (69.1)4 (1.2)331 (98.8) 
 None5 (1.5)3 (60)2 (40)0.001*
Maternal CD4+ count at late pregnancy (cell/mm3)
 < 20013 (3.9)0 (0)13 (100) 
 ≥ 200327 (96.1)7 (2.1)320 (97.9)NA
  1. *P-Value < 0.05 indicates significant result by Fisher's exact test
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