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Table 1 Classification of “idiopathic osteolysis” according to Hardegger et al

From: A report of two children with Gorham-Stout disease

Type Typical age at manifestation Location of the manifestation Nephropathy Prognosis
Hereditary multicentric osteolysis with dominant inheritance
Juvenile Carpotarsal osteolysis, sometimes affecting the radius and ulna No Good, self-limiting in adolescence
Hereditary multicentric osteolysis with recessive transmission
Juvenile Consistent with type I, in addition to generalized osteoporosis No Good, self-limiting in adolescence
Nonhereditary multicentric osteolysis with nephropathy
Juvenile Mainly carpometacarpal, tarsal involvement is rare, malignant hypertension Yes, proteinuria in progressive renal pathology Unfavorable
Gorham-Stout syndrome
Independent of age Typical: shoulder, pelvis, facial skull bones No Usually good. When there is spinal involvement or chylothorax, mortality rises more than 50%
Winchester syndrome (hereditary, autosomal recessive)
Juvenile Carpotarsal osteolysis and contractures, short stature, osteoporosis, corneal deterioration No Progressive