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Table 5 Bi-variate analysis of baseline, maternal and paternal characteristics; micro-nutrient status and cognition with HC measurement (12th month)

From: Low head circumference during early childhood and its predictors in a semi-urban settlement of Vellore, Southern India

Predictor Head circumference (cm) Chi-squared value p-value OR
(95% CI)
<−2 SD (%) Normal (%)
Low birth weight (< 2.5 kg) 93 (50) 21 (58.3) 0.838 0.360 1.40 (0.64–3.10)
WAMI (6th month) (<33rd centile) 43 (37.1) 26 (24.1) 4.431 0.035 1.86 (1.01–3.47)
WAMI (12th month) (<33rd centile) 46 (39) 28 (25.7) 4.55 0.033 1.85 (1.01–3.40)
WAMI (24th month) (<33rd centile) 31 (26.5) 18 (16.7) 3.18 0.074 1.80 (0.89–3.68)
Low maternal HC (cm) 72 (62.6) 43 (42.2) 9.07 0.003 2.29 (1.28–4.11)
Low paternal HC (cm) 60 (56.1) 39 (39.8) 5.42 0.02 1.93 (1.06–3.50)
Parity of the mother (> 2) 68 (59.6) 65 (58.6) 0.02 0.87 0.96 (0.54–1.68)
Age of the mother (< 23 years) 48 (41.4) 47 (43.1) 0.07 0.80 0.93 (0.53–1.63)
Low maternal education 46 (39.7) 34 (31.2) 1.75 0.185 1.45 (0.80–2.61)
Low paternal education 48 (42.8) 38 (38.4) 0.43 0.509 1.20 (0.66–2.17)
Low maternal BMI 27 (23.1) 18 (16.7) 1.44 0.23 1.50 (0.73–3.10)
Low paternal BMI 13 (12.2) 7 (7.1) 1.45 0.23 1.79 (0.63–5.59)
Low maternal IQ (<33rd centile) 52 (44.1) 28 (25.7) 8.38 0.004 2.28 (1.25–4.17)
Exclusively breastfeeding (≤4 month) 109 (93.2) 97 (89) 1.42 0.49 1.68 (0.66–4.29)
Anaemia 62 (53) 55 (51) 0.09 0.75 1.08 (0.62–1.89)
Elevated α-1-acid glycoprotein (mg/dL)a 41 (37.9) 35 (33.9) 0.362 0.55 1.18 (0.65–2.17)
Low Ferritin (μg/L)a 31 (26.7) 21 (19.4) 1.66 0.19 1.51 (0.77–2.99)
Low Retinol (μg/dL)a 21 (20.2) 19 (19.2) 0.032 0.85 1.06 (0.50–2.26)
Low Transferrin receptor (μg/ml)a 66 (60.6) 67 (64.4) 0.34 0.56 0.84 (0.46–1.53)
Low Serum Zinc (μg/dL)a 61 (54.4) 48 (46.1) 1.49 0.22 1.39 (0.79–2.47)
  1. aMeasured at 7th month
  2. data in bold represents p-value <0.05