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Table 1 Baseline, maternal and paternal characteristics of the study participants (N = 228)

From: Low head circumference during early childhood and its predictors in a semi-urban settlement of Vellore, Southern India

Variable Category n % p-value
Gender (n = 228) Male 105 46 0.23
Female 123 54
Birth weight (kg) (n = 223) Very Low Birth weight (< 1.99 kg) 5 2 < 0.001
Low birth weight (2–2.49 kg) 32 14
Normal birth weight (≥ 2.5 kg) 186 84
Socio-economic status (WAMIa) 6th month (n = 225) Low (≤ 33rd centile) 69 31 < 0.001
Middle and High (> 33rd centile) 156 69
12th month (n = 228) Low (≤ 33rd centile) 74 32 < 0.001
Middle and High (> 33rd centile) 154 68
18th month (n = 228) Low (≤ 33rd centile) 72 32 < 0.001
Middle and High (> 33rd centile) 156 68
Parity of the mother (n = 226) >  2 91 40 < 0.001
≤ 2 135 60
Age of the mother (n = 226) <  23 years 96 42 0.109
≥ 23 years 130 58
Mother’s education (n = 226) No schooling 26 11 < 0.001
Primary (1st to 5th grade) 54 24
Secondary (6th to 10th grade) 110 49
High school (>11th grade) 36 16
Father’s education (n = 212) No schooling 30 14 < 0.001
Primary (1st to 5th grade) 56 26
Secondary (6th to 10th grade) 109 52
High school (>11th grade) 17 8
Mother’s BMI (n = 226) Under-weight (<  18.5) 46 20 < 0.001
Normal (18.5–24.9) 132 59
Over weight (≥ 25) 48 21
Father’s BMI (n = 205) Under-weight (<  18.5) 20 10 < 0.001
Normal (18.5–24.9) 131 64
Over weight (≥ 25) 54 26
Mother’s IQ (RCMb) (n = 228) Low (≤ 33rd centile) 81 36 < 0.001
Normal and High (> 33rd centile) 147 64
  1. aSocio-economic index that integrates 4 components namely, access to improved water and sanitation, 8 selected assets, maternal education and household income
  2. bRavens Combined Matrices Score
  3. data in bold represents p-value <0.05