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Table 2 Multivariate multilevel logistic regression model of the effects of individual- and community-level factors on child stunting less than five years in Ethiopia, EDHS 2016

From: Determinants of stunting among under-five children in Ethiopia: a multilevel mixed-effects analysis of 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data

Individual- and community-level characteristics Null model Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Empty model Individual-level variables Community-level variables Individual- and community-level variables
AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI)
Current child age
 0–5 moths (reference)   1   1
 6–11 moths   1.29(0.97–1.71)   1.27(0.95–1.69)
 12–23 moths   5.1***(3.97–6.38)   5.04***(3.95–6.41
 24–59 moths   10.***(7.78–2.97)   10***(7.71–12.98)
Child sex
 Male (reference)   1   1
 Female   0.85(0.75–0.96)   0.85*(0.75–0.94)
Type of birth
 Multiple (reference)   1   1
 Single   0.53*(0.32–0.89)   0.50*(0.30–0.85)
Size of child at birth
 Large (reference)   1   1
 Medium   1.19*(1.02–1.38)   1.20*(1..02–1.40)
 Small   1.7***(1.44–2.02)   1.68***(1.40–2.00)
Age of Women
 15–24 years (reference)   1   1
 25–34 years   0.94(.77–1.14)   0.96(0.78–1.18)
 35–49 years   0.92(0.70–1.22)   0.93(0.71–1.24)
Women education level
 No education (reference)   1   1
 Primary education   0.95(0.80–1.12)   0.95(0.80–1.13)
 Secondary and above   0.69*(0.51–0.93)   0.73*(0.57–0.95)
Body mass index
 Over weight (reference)   1   1
 Normal weight   1.51**(1.17–01.94)   1.34*(1.03–1.75)
 Under weight   1.74***(1.32–2.3)   1.56**(1.17–2.08)
Number of antenatal care visits
 No visits (reference)   1   1
 1–3 visits   1.02(0.87–1.20)   0.98(0.84–1.17)
 4–20 visits   0.87(.73–1.04)   0.83(0.68–1.00)
Place of delivery
 Institution (reference)   1   1
 Home   1.08(0.92–1.28)   1.04(0.87–1.24)
Age of mothers at first birth
 11–18 years (reference)   1   1
 19–25 years   0.99(.87–1.14)   1.02(0.90–1.17)
 26–32 years   1.07(0.76–1.52)   1.06(0.74–1.52)
 33–40 years   1.02(0.39–2.65)   1.01(0.36–2.80)
Father education level
 No education (reference)   1   1
 Primary education   0.83*(0.71–0.96)   0.86(0.73–1.00)
 Secondary and above   0.72**(0.57 0.90)   0.85(0.67–1.08)
Wealth index
 Poor (reference)   1   1
 Middle   0.89(0.75–1.1)   0.83(0.68–1.01)
 Rich   0.72***(0.6–0.85)   0.66***(0.54–0.79)
Mass media exposure
 Yes (reference)   1   1
 No   1.12(0.90–1.38)   0.99(0.79–1.25)
Birth order of the last birth
 First (reference)   1   1
 2nd and 3rd   0.91(0.74–1.12)   0.90(.72–1.12)
 4th and 5th   1.04(0.80–1.35)   1.05(0.80–1.36)
 6th and above   0.97(.72–1.3)   0.96(0.71–1.31)
Religion
 Protestant (reference)    1 1
 Muslim    1.33**(1.08–1.64) 1.45**(1.12–1.88)
 Orthodox    0.98(.79–1.22) 0.94(0.72–1.23)
 Others(catholic, traditional)    1.41*(1.01–1.97) 1.66*(1.0–2.57)
Place of residence
 Urban (reference)    1 1
 Rural    1.49***(1.22–1.83) 1.29*(1.06–1.58)
Region
 Addis Ababa (reference)    1 1
 Afar    1.84***(1.19–2.85) 1.00(0.58–1.72)
 Amhara    3.11***(2.09–4.63) 1.88*(1.16–3.07)
 Oromia    1.54*(1.04–2.29) 1.04(0.64–1.69)
 Somali    0.87(0.57–1.34) 0.71(0.42–1.22)
 Benishangul    2.11***(1.38–3.21) 1.75*(1.10–2.76)
 SNNPR    2.01*(1.34–3.02) 1.35(0.82–2.22)
 Gambella    1.13(0.73–1.77) 0.86(0.50–1.49)
 Harari    1.39(0.89–2.15) 0.92(0.54–1.57)
 Tigray    1.99**(1.29–3.01) 1.76*(1.01–2.92)
 Dire Dawa    1.41*(1.01–1.97) 1.23(0.72–2.11)
Type of drinking water
 Unimproved (reference)    1 1
 improved    1.01(0.90–1.13) 1.05(0.90–1.22)
Community-level women poverty
 Low (reference)    1 1
 high    1.20*(1.03–1.39) 0.92(0.75–1.12)
Community-level women institutional delivery
 Low (reference)    1 1
 high    0.80**(0.68–0.94) 0.89(0.72–1.09)
Random effect
 Community-level variance(SE) 0.37***(0.046) 0.21***(.049) 0.19***(.032) 0.17***(0.047)
 ICC (%) 10.10% 6.00% 5.40% 5.00%
 MOR 1.78 1.54 1.51 1.47
 PCV reference 44% 49.80% 53.6%
Model fit statistics
 AIC 11,420.09 6373.387 11,050.830 6234.555
 BIC 11,434.27 6578.387 11,199.350 6551.946
 Log-likelihood 5708.045 3155.693 5504.414 3069.278
  1. Note: *significant at *P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, AIC Akaike information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion, Model 1-Empty (null) model; Model 2- Only individual-level explanatory variables included in the model; Model 3-Only community-level explanatory variables included in the model; Model 4-Combined model; PCV Proportional Change in Variance, MOR Median Odds Ratio