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Table 3 Stratified associations between trimester-specific GWG and offspring body-fat compositions at 5 years of age by pre-pregnancy BMI categories

From: Association between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and childhood obesity at 5 years of age: results from Shanghai obesity cohort

Outcomes   Pre-pregnancy BMI n Gestational weight gain (per 3 kg)
1st trimester 2nd trimester 3rd trimester
Overweight/obesity OR (95% CI) underweight 50 1.06 (0.28, 3.96) 0.90 (0.19, 4.24) 1.04 (0.17, 6.20)
normal weight 180 1.33 (0.88, 2.01) 1.09 (0.67, 1.77) 1.18 (0.77, 1.83)
overweight/obese 71 1.29 (0.79, 2.12) 0.99 (0.55, 1.79) 2.76 (1.16, 6.55)
FMI (kg/m2) β (95% CI) underweight 50 −0.08(−0.31, 0.16) −0.04(− 0.33, 0.26) 0.19(− 0.09, 0.46)
normal weight 180 0.27 (0.08, 0.47) 0.20(−0.05, 0.44) 0.15(−0.07, 0.36)
overweight/obese 71 0.19(−0.07, 0.45) 0.28(−0.15, 0.71) 0.50(− 0.03, 1.02)
Body fat percentage (%) β (95% CI) underweight 50 −0.55(−1.93, 0.83) − 0.33(−2.03, 1.37) 1.05(− 0.54, 2.63)
normal weight 180 1.36 (0.37, 2.36) 0.95(−0.28, 2.18) 0.83(−0.26, 1.93)
overweight/obese 71 0.74(−0.32, 1.79) 1.06(−0.70, 2.82) 2.02(− 0.12, 4.17)
FFMI (kg/m2) β (95% CI) underweight 50 0.08(−0.21, 0.36) 0.13(−0.22, 0.47) 0.003(− 0.33, 0.34)
normal weight 180 −0.01(− 0.15, 0.13) 0.01(− 0.16, 0.18) −0.05(− 0.20, 0.10)
overweight/obese 71 0.07(−0.04, 0.18) −0.01(− 0.20, 0.18) 0.10(− 0.13, 0.34)
WHtR β (95% CI) underweight 50 0.002(−0.01, 0.01) 0.008(−0.003, 0.02) 0.01(− 0.001, 0.02)
normal weight 179 0.004(−0.001, 0.01) 0.0001(−0.006, 0.007) 0.001(− 0.004, 0.007)
overweight/obese 71 0.003(−0.003, 0.009) 0.003(−0.007, 0.013) 0.01 (0.00008, 0.03)
  1. BMI body mass index, FMI fat mass index, FFMI fat free mass index, WHtR waist-height-ratio, OR odds ratio
  2. All models were adjusted for maternal, education, age, parity, smoking during pregnancy, annual family income, history of gestational diabetes mellitus and antibiotic use, mode of delivery, paternal BMI, offspring sex, and duration of breastfeeding. Significant associations are in bold