Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations between trimester-specific GWG and childhood body-fat compositions

From: Association between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and childhood obesity at 5 years of age: results from Shanghai obesity cohort

Outcomes   Gestational weight gain (per 3 kg)
Model 1a Model 2b
n 1st-trimester 2nd-trimester 3rd-trimester n 1st-trimester 2nd-trimester 3rd-trimester
Birth to 2 years of age
 LGA OR (95% CI) 407 1.23 (0.87, 1.74) 2.40 (1.49, 3.87) 1.45 (0.98, 2.15) 407 1.22 (0.87, 1.72) 2.54 (1.56, 4.14) 1.44 (0.97, 2.15)
 BMI SD-scores at 1 year of age β (95% CI) 257 0.05(−0.02, 0.12) 0.03(− 0.07, 0.13) − 0.03(− 0.12, 0.06) 231 0.07(− 0.002, 0.15) 0.01(− 0.02, 0.03) − 0.02(− 0.12, 0.08)
 BMI SD-scores at 2 years of age β (95% CI) 295 0.08 (0.01, 0.15) 0.07(− 0.02, 0.16) − 0.01(− 0.09, 0.08) 245 0.12 (0.05, 0.19) 0.06(− 0.03, 0.17) − 0.02(− 0.12, 0.08)
At 5 years of age
 Overweight/obesity OR (95% CI) 407 1.25 (1.004, 1.55) 0.94 (0.72, 1.21) 1.33 (1.03, 1.71) 301 1.40 (1.06, 1.86) 1.01 (0.76, 1.48) 1.24 (0.90, 1.70)
 BMI SD-scores β (95% CI) 407 0.09 (0.03, 0.15) −0.0001(− 0.07, 0.07) 0.06(− 0.01, 0.13) 301 0.13 (0.07, 0.19) 0.05(− 0.04, 0.13) 0.04(− 0.04, 0.13)
 FMI (kg/m2) β (95% CI) 407 0.16 (0.05, 0.28) 0.001(−0.15, 0.15) 0.14(− 0.01, 0.28) 301 0.25 (0.12, 0.38) 0.11(− 0.07, 0.29) 0.08(− 0.09, 0.25)
 Body fat percentage (%) β (95% CI) 407 0.68 (0.14, 1.22) 0.10(−0.61, 0.81) 0.68(− 0.01, 1.36) 301 1.04 (0.43, 1.65) 0.51(−0.34, 1.36) 0.47(− 0.31, 1.26)
 FFMI (kg/m2) β (95% CI) 407 0.04(−0.02, 0.11) −0.03(− 0.12, 0.06) 0.02(− 0.07, 0.11) 301 0.05(− 0.03, 0.13) − 0.02(− 0.13, 0.09) −0.01(− 0.11, 0.10)
 WHtR β (95% CI) 406 0.004 (0.001, 0.007) −0.002(− 0.005, 0.002) 0.001(− 0.002, 0.005) 300 0.005 (0.002, 0.008) 0.0003(− 0.005, 0.004) 0.001(− 0.003, 0.005)
  1. LGA large for gestational age, BMI body mass index, FMI fat mass index, FFMI fat free mass index, WHtR waist-height-ratio, OR odds ratio
  2. a Model 1: adjusted for maternal education, age, parity, smoking during pregnancy, annual family income, history of gestational diabetes mellitus and antibiotic use, and offspring sex; all anthropometry outcomes other than LGA were adjusted for mode of delivery
  3. b Model 2: additionally adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and paternal BMI; for all models of body-fat compositions other than LGA were adjusted for duration of breastfeeding. Significant associations are in bold