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Table 1 Maternal and children’s characteristics in underweight, normal weight and overweight/obesity children

From: Association between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and childhood obesity at 5 years of age: results from Shanghai obesity cohort

Characteristics Underweight Normal weight Overweight/obesity P value
  n = 86 n = 286 n = 121  
Maternal characteristics
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)     <  0.001
  < 18.5 19 (22.1) 58 (20.3) 10 (8.3)  
  18.5–23.9 60 (69.8) 175 (61.2) 75 (62)  
  24–27.9 7 (8.1) 45 (15.7) 23 (19)  
  ≥ 28 0 (0) 8 (2.8) 13 (10.7)  
Age at delivery (years) 29 ± 4 29.0 ± 4 28.0 ± 4 0.467
Education years     0.079
 < 9 0 (0) 4 (1.4) 5 (4.1)  
 9–12 5 (5.8) 35 (12.2) 10 (8.3)  
 ≥ 12 81 (94.2) 247 (86.4) 106 (87.6)  
Gestational diabetes mellitus 11 (12.8) 30 (10.5) 17 (14) 0.564
Antibiotic use in pregnancy 2 (2.3) 12 (4.2) 3 (2.5) 0.659
Smoking in pregnancy 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 0 (0) 1.000
Annual family income     0.045
 < $15,650 23 (26.7) 76 (26.6) 36 (29.8)  
 $15,650-31,300 34 (39.5) 95 (33.2) 55 (45.5)  
 ≥ $31,300 16 (18.6) 54 (18.9) 9 (7.4)  
 Refuse to answer 13 (15.1) 61 (21.3) 21 (17.4)  
Mode of delivery     0.324
 Vaginal 28 (32.6) 78 (27.3) 28 (23.1)  
 Caesarean section 58 (67.4) 208 (72.7) 93 (76.9)  
Primipara 75 (87.2) 249 (87.1) 109 (90.1) 0.683
Duration of breastfeeding ≥6 months (n = 357) 52 (92.9) 187 (89.5) 80 (87) 0.527
Paternal BMI (kg/m2)     <  0.001
 < 18.5 6 (7.0) 7 (2.4) 0 (0)  
 18.5–23.9 48 (55.8) 139 (48.6) 39 (32.2)  
 24–27.9 26 (30.2) 111 (38.8) 53 (43.8)  
 ≥ 28 6 (7.0) 29 (10.1) 29 (24)  
Total GWG (kg) 15.7 ± 4.4 16.2 ± 5.8 17.3 ± 5.6 0.048
1st-trimester GWG (kg) 2.4 ± 2.3 2.4 ± 3.4 3.1 ± 3.6 0.130
2nd-trimester GWG (kg) 6.8 ± 2.3 7.1 ± 2.4 7.0 ± 3.1 0.572
3rd-trimester GWG (kg) 6.6 ± 2.6 6.7 ± 2.7 7.2 ± 2.8 0.263
Children’s characteristics
 Boys 40 (46.5) 139 (48.6) 72 (59.5) 0.088
 Birth weight (kg) 3267 ± 355 3446 ± 410 3564 ± 437 <  0.001
 LGA 0 (0) 20 (7) 13 (10.7) 0.009
 BMI at 1 year of age (kg/m2) (n = 308) 16.4 ± 1.0 17.3 ± 1.5 17.9 ± 2.2 <  0.001
 BMI at 2 years of age (kg/m2) (n = 355) 15.0 ± 0.9 16.0 ± 1.3 17.0 ± 1.4 <  0.001
 BMI at 5 years of age (kg/m2) 13.6 ± 0.4 15.3 ± 1.0 17.6 ± 1.7 <  0.001
 FMI at 5 years of age (kg/m2) 1.6 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.6 <  0.001
 Body fat percentage at 5 years of age (%) 12.0 ± 3.5 16.2 ± 4.4 22.7 ± 6.7 <  0.001
 FFMI at 5 years of age (kg/m2) 12.0 ± 0.5 12.8 ± 0.7 13.5 ± 1.1 <  0.001
 Waist-height-ratio (n = 490) 0.44 ± 0.02 0.46 ± 0.03 0.51 ± 0.04 <  0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, GWG gestational weight gain, LGA large for gestational age, FMI fat mass index, FFMI fat free mass index, WHtR waist-height-ratio