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Table 2 Summery of included studies which reported the relationship of pediatric hypertension (HTN) and smoking

From: Effect of passive exposure to cigarette smoke on blood pressure in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

Author, year; country Type of survey Study type Total sample Sexa Age HTN definitionb Smoking definition Type of exposer BP measurements method
Akis, 2009; Turkey [28] Local Case-control 236 42 12 to 14 BP > 95th More than 1 cigarette per week Active Three times measurement of BP using an automatic sphygmomanometer device
Bozza, 2016; Brazil [29] Local Cross-section 1242 596 11 to 17 BP > 95th Cigarettes smoked 10 to 30 days Active Two times measurement of BP using auscultatory method
Christofaro, 2015; Brazil [30] Local Cross-section 1231 NR 14 to 17 BP > 95th Current daily smoking at least 1 cigarette Active two times measurement of BP using an automatic oscillometric device
Cinteza, 2013; Romania [31] Regional Cross-section 4886 2407 3 to 17 BP > 95th Current smoking Active Three times measurement of BP. First measurement using an automatic oscillometric device and a BP mercury device for the second and the third measurement
Crispim, 2014; Brazil [32] Local Cross-section 276 145 2 to 4 BP > 95th Current smoking Passive (domestic) Two times measurement of BP using a semi-automatic an oscillometric device
Dasgupta, 2006; Canada [33] Local Cohort 1267 1018 10 to 18 BP > 90th Current smoking Active Three times measurement of BP using an automatic oscillometric device
Giussani, 2013; Italy [34] Regional Cross-section 1310 682 5 to 14 BP > 90th At least one parent with smoking habit Passive (domestic) Two times measurement of BP using a aneroid sphygmomanometer device
Gomes, 2009; Brazil [35] Local Cross-section 1875 718 14 to 20 BP > 95th NR Active Single measurement of BP using an automatic oscillometric device
Guo, 2011; China [36] Local Cross-section 4445 2298 5 to 18 BP > 95th At least 1 cigarette per month Active Two times measurement of BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer device
International Collaborative Group, 1984; Europe [37] International Cohort 2704 NR 14 BP > 95th More than 5 cigarette per week Active; pregnancy Three times measurement of BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer device
Nur, 2008; Turkey [38] Local Cross-section 1020 593 14 to 18 BP > 95th NR Active Three times measurement of BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer device
Pileggi, 2005; Italy [39] Local Cross-section 603 284 6 to 18 BP > 95th Current smoking Active Three times measurement of BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer device
Shankaran, 2006; USA [40] Regional Cohort 516 275 6 BP > 95th NR Pregnancy Two times measurement of BP using an automatic oscillometric device
Simonetti, 2011; Germany [42] National Cross-section 4236 2181 4 to 7.5 BP > 95th Current smoking Passive (domestic) Three times measurement of BP using an auscultatory aneroid sphygmomanometry device
van den Berg, 2013; Netherland [41] Local Cohort 3024 1521 5 to 6 BP > 90th NR Passive (domestic) Two or three times measurement of BP using an automatic sphygmomanometer device
  1. aMale sex (number of children);
  2. bHypertension (HTN) was defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure more than 95th percentile; Prehypertension was defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure between 90th and 95th percentiles
  3. BP Blood pressure, NA Not applicable, NR Not reported