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Table 1 Analysis of risk factors affecting PNAC

From: Predictive value of the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index for parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis in extremely low birth weight infants

Variable PNAC
Yes No P -value
Gestational age (weeks)
 Mean ± SD 26.07 ± 2.23 26.78 ± 2.32 .035 2
Birth weight (gram)
 Mean ± SD 737.68 ± 151.71 824.72 ± 160.26 .001 2
Hospital days 116.86 ± 56.96 94.34 ± 37.46 .003 2
IUGR
 Yes 20 (35.7) 30 (24.4) .117 1
 No 36 (64.3) 93 (75.6)  
Sex
 Male 27 (48.2) 55 (44.7) .663 1
 Female 29 (51.8) 68 (55.3)  
Apgar score 1 min 4.38 ± 1.61 4.82 ± 1.31 .085 2
Apgar score 5mins 6.70 ± 1.29 6.93 ± 0.98 .230 2
Ventilator duration (days) 55.79 ± 47.23 29.26 ± 25.69 .000 2
PDA
 Surgical ligation 19 (33.9) 22 (17.9) .018 1
 Others 37 (66.1) 101 (82.1)  
ROP
 Laser or bevacizumab inj. 38 (67.9) 59 (48.0) .013 1
 Observation 18 (32.1) 64 (52.0)  
Head ultrasonography
 Normal 35 (62.5) 87 (70.7) .273 1
 Abnormal 21 (37.5) 36 (29.3)  
BPD
 Yes 45 (80.4) 67 (54.5) .001 1
 No 11 (19.6) 56 (45.5)  
NEC
 Yes 27 (48.2) 15 (12.2) .000 1
 No 29 (51.8) 108 (87.8)  
Sepsis
 Yes 40 (71.4) 61 (49.6) .006 1
 No 16 (28.6) 62 (50.4)  
GI surgery
 Yes 19 (33.9) 9 (7.3) .000 1
 No 37 (66.1) 114 (92.7)  
TPN days
 Mean ± SD 74.13 ± 50.62 42.38 ± 31.74 .000 2
Feeding start (days)
 Mean ± SD 4.36 ± 3.25 3.86 ± 2.60 .234 2
Days to achieve full enteral feeding (days) 56.24 ± 22.36 35.06 ± 15.95 .000 2
Type of formula
 Breast milk 20 (37.7) 73 (59.8) .007 1
 Others 33 (62.3) 49 (40.2)  
  1. Abbreviations: IUGR intrauterine grow retardation, PDA patent ductus arteriosus, ROP retinopathy of prematurity, BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia, NEC necrotizing enterocolitis, TPN total parenteral nutrition, PNAC parenteral nutrition–associated cholestasis
  2. 1P values were derived from chi-square test
  3. 2P values were derived from Mann-Whitney’s U test. Shapiro-Wilk’s test was employed for test of normality assumption
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