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Table 3 Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Children Under-Five Years in Tanzania Stratified by Maternal Educational Attainment (TDHS-MIS, 2015–16)

From: Does education offset the effect of maternal disadvantage on childhood anaemia in Tanzania? Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

Socio-Demographic Characteristics All Children Sample
(n = 7916)
No Education
(n = 1742)
Primary
(n = 4758)
Secondary+
(n = 1416)
Adjusted Odd Ratios [95% CI]
Mother’s Age Group
 15–24 1.43*** [1.16,1.75] 1.15 [0.74,1.79] 1.55*** [1.20,2.00] 1.62 [0.90,2.89]
 25–34 1.22* [1.05,1.42] 1.29 [0.95,1.76] 1.21* [1.00,1.46] 1.55 [0.97,2.48]
 35–49 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Marital Status
 Not Married 1.09 [0.87,1.38] 4.04*** [1.98,8.24] 1.08 [0.80,1.44] 0.86 [0.57,1.31]
 Currently Married Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Formerly Married 1.04 [0.89,1.22] 0.95 [0.68,1.32] 1.07 [0.87,1.31] 1.13 [0.71,1.81]
Educational Attainment
 No Education 1.53*** [1.25,1.89]    
 Primary 1.06 [0.90,1.26]    
 Secondary+ Reference    
Employment Status
 Not Working 1.31*** [1.15,1.49] 1.62** [1.21,2.16] 1.21* [1.03,1.43] 1.34 [0.97,1.85]
 Currently Working Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Number of Siblings 1.05** [1.01,1.08] 1.05 [0.98,1.12] 1.06** [1.02,1.10] 0.97 [0.86,1.10]
Place of Residence
 Mainland - Urban Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Mainland - Rural 0.89 [0.76,1.05] 0.65* [0.44,0.97] 0.95 [0.78,1.17] 0.99 [0.66,1.50]
 Zanzibar - Urban 1.76*** [1.30,2.38] 0.49 [0.22,1.08] 1.87 [0.98,3.56] 2.28*** [1.48,3.54]
 Zanzibar - Rural 1.39*** [1.16,1.66] 0.9 [0.58,1.38] 1.38* [1.05,1.82] 1.84*** [1.30,2.60]
Wealth Status
 Poorest 1.50** [1.17,1.91] 2.68** [1.28,5.60] 1.27 [0.93,1.74] 2.17 [0.87,5.45]
 Poorer 1.41** [1.10,1.80] 2.21* [1.05,4.66] 1.34 [0.98,1.83] 1.06 [0.56,2.01]
 Middle 1.26 [1.00,1.59] 2.06 [0.97,4.38] 1.19 [0.89,1.60] 0.88 [0.50,1.54]
 Richer 0.96 [0.79,1.18] 1.69 [0.80,3.56] 0.84 [0.64,1.10] 1.12 [0.76,1.66]
 Richest Reference Reference Reference Reference
Health Insurance
 No Health Insurance 1.26* [1.03,1.53] 1.22 [0.66,2.25] 1.29 [1.00,1.67] 1.34 [0.90,2.00]
 Health Insurance Reference Reference Reference Reference
Mother’s BMI
 Under Weight 0.97 [0.80,1.18] 1.08 [0.69,1.67] 0.9 [0.71,1.15] 0.99 [0.58,1.69]
 Normal Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Overweight 0.79*** [0.69,0.89] 0.59*** [0.44,0.79] 0.86 [0.73,1.01] 0.75 [0.55,1.03]
 Severe Obesity 0.62* [0.43,0.89] 0.21* [0.05,0.90] 0.54* [0.33,0.88] 0.89 [0.45,1.77]
Birth Type
 Single Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Multiple 1.38* [1.01,1.87] 1.62 [0.92,2.84] 1.09 [0.74,1.60] 2.62 [0.90,7.57]
Child’s Sex
 Male Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Female 0.84*** [0.76,0.93] 0.91 [0.73,1.13] 0.78*** [0.69,0.89] 0.97 [0.74,1.28]
Child’s Age
 6–23 months Reference Reference Reference Reference
 24–47 months 0.37*** [0.33,0.42] 0.52*** [0.40,0.66] 0.35*** [0.31,0.41] 0.30*** [0.22,0.41]
 48–59 months 0.27*** [0.23,0.31] 0.36*** [0.27,0.49] 0.25*** [0.21,0.30] 0.19*** [0.12,0.29]
Child’s BMI
 Low 1.39* [1.05,1.85] 2.32** [1.24,4.36] 1.34 [0.95,1.88] 0.62 [0.30,1.28]
 Normal Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Overweight 1.21** [1.05,1.40] 0.99 [0.74,1.33] 1.19 [0.99,1.42] 1.87*** [1.29,2.71]
 Obese 1.07 [0.84,1.36] 1.52 [0.87,2.67] 0.85 [0.63,1.15] 1.57 [0.81,3.04]
/cut1 0.79 [0.58,1.08] 0.81 [0.28,2.31] 0.71 [0.46,1.1] 0.86 [0.39,1.87]
/cut2 2.70 [1.97,3.7] 2.73 [0.96,7.72] 2.42 [1.56,3.74] 3.42 [1.57,7.44]
/cut3 82.9 [57.2120.2] 75.0 [25.0,225.3] 77.3 [46.9127.3] 143.0 [44.4460.6]
AIC 16,881.3 3859.96 10,794.61 2212.41
Log pseudolikelihood − 8411.65 − 1902.98 − 5370.3 − 1079.21
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001