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Table 1 Descriptive data of mothers, newborns and infants at 6 months

From: Anthropometric and clinical correlates of fat mass in healthy term infants at 6 months of age

Maternal information ALL (n = 102) GIRLS (n = 53) BOYS (n = 49)
Age (years) 28.5 (14–44) 23 (14–40)# 32 (14–44)#
Pre-gestational weight (kg) 59 (50.4–68) 58.0 (50.0–68.8) 60.0 (53.5–67.5)
Height (cm) 156.7 ± 5.8 156.7 ± 6.6 156.8 ± 4.9
Pre-gestational BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 (15.1–48.4) 23.3 (15.1–35.3) 24.6 (18.4–48.1)
Overweight/obesity 41 (40.2) 19 (35.8) 22 (44.9)
GWG (3rd trimester) n = 92 n = 49 n = 43
Adequate 22 (23.9) 10 (20.4) 12 (27.9)
Excessive 43 (46.7) 23 (46.9) 20 (46.5)
Infant anthropometry @ birth n = 94 n = 49 n = 45
Weight (kg) 2.89 ± 0.35 2.81 ± 0.32* 2.98 ± 0.35*
Length (cm) 46.9 ± 2.0 46.4 ± 1.9* 47.5 ± 1.9*
BMI (kg/m2) 13.1 ± 1.0 13.1 ± 1.0 13.0 ± 1.1
BMI/A (z-score) − 0.20 ± 0.84 − 0.16 ± 0.79 − 0.26 ± 0.90
W/L (z-score) 0.31 ± 0.95 0.39 ± 0.87 0.26 ± 1.03
Infant anthropometry @ 6 months n = 102 n = 53 n = 49
Weight (kg) 7.13 ± 0.86 6.91 ± 0.81* 7.47 ± 0.86*
Length (cm) 64.0 ± 2.6 63.1 ± 2.2 65.0 ± 2.6
BMI (kg/m2) 17.4 ± 1.6 17.3 ± 1.6 17.4 ± 1.6
BMI/A (z-score) 0.10 ± 1.1 0.22 ± 1.00 − 0.02 ± 1.18
W/L (z-score) 0.26 ± 1.1 0.40 ± 1.00 0.12 ± 1.18
Waist circumference (cm) 39.4 ± 2.7 39.2 ± 2.7 39.7 ± 2.8
Triceps skinfold (mm) 8.0 (7.0–9.5) 8.0 (7.0–9.0) 8.0 (7.0–10.0)
Biceps skinfold (mm) 6.0 (5.0–7.0) 6.0 (4.0–7.0) 6.0 (5.0–7.0)
Subscapular skinfold (mm) 7.0 (6.0–9.0) 7.0 (6.0–9.0) 7.0 (6.5–8.0)
Skinfolds sum (mm) 21 (18.0–24.5) 21 (18.0–23.5) 21 (18.5–25.0)
Fat mass (%) 25.8 ± 5.9 26.0 ± 6.4 25.5 ± 5.5
Fat mass (kg) 1.9 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.5
FMI (FMkg/length2) 4.5 ± 1.4 4.5 ± 1.5 4.5 ± 1.2
Fat-free mass (%) 74.2 ± 5.9 74.0 ± 6.4 74.5 ± 5.5
Fat-free mass (kg) 5.3 ± 0.6 5.1 ± 0.5** 5.5 ± 0.5**
Feeding information @ 6 months n = 102 n = 53 n = 49
Exclusive/predominant breastfeeding 26 (25.5) 13 (24.5) 13 (26.5)
Breastfeeding up to 6 months + formula 47 (46.1) 22 (41.5) 25 (51.0)
Breastfeeding < 6 months + formula 29 (28.4) 18 (34.0) 11 (22.4)
Started complementary feeding < 4 month 25 (24.8) 15 (28.3) 10 (20.8)
Started complementary feeding > 4 month 76 (75.2) 38 (71.7) 38 (79.2)
  1. Data are shown as Mean ± SD; Median (25°-75°); n (%)
  2. BMI Body mass index, GWG, Gestational weight gain, BMI/A Body-mass-index/age, W/L, weight-to-length, FMI Fat mass index, FMkg kilograms of fat mass
  3. T-Student test *p < 0.05; **p = 0.001 (girls vs boys); #U Mann-Whitney test p < 0.05 (girls vs boys)
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