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Table 5 Risk factors of blood stream infections among children in North-western Tanzania

From: Deciphering risk factors for blood stream infections, bacteria species and antimicrobial resistance profiles among children under five years of age in North-Western Tanzania: a multicentre study in a cascade of referral health care system

Variable   BSIs (n, %) Univariate OR (95%CI) p-value Multivariate OR (95%CI) p-value
Hospital NDH & SDDH (218) 18 (8.3) 1    
SRRH (218) 14 (6.4) 0.76 (0.37–1.57) 0.464 0.90 (0.43–1.90) 0.917
BMC (514) 103 (20.0) 2.78 (1.64–4.72) < 0.001 2.01 (1.08–3.74) 0.028
Sex Boys (558) 80 (14.3) 1    
Girls (392) 55 (14.0) 0.97 (0.67–1.41) 0.894   
Age category 13–60 months (395) 35 (8.9) 1    
2–12 months (209) 12 (5.7) 0.63 (0.32–1.23) 0.177 0.59 (0.30–1.17) 0.128
≤1 month (346) 88 (25.4) 3.51 (2.30–5.36) < 0.001 1.93 (1.07–3.48) 0.030
Weight (kg) Normal (539) 85 (15.8) 1    
Underweight (373) 49 (13.1) 0.81 (0.55–1.18) 0.270   
Overweight (38) 1 (2.6) 0.14 (0.02–1.07) 0.058   
Residence Rural (315) 39 (12.4) 1    
Urban (635) 96 (15.1) 1.26 (0.85–1.88) 0.256   
Mwanza city No (313) 41 (13.1) 1    
Yes (637) 94 (14.8) 1.15 (0.78–1.71) 0.492   
Current antibiotic use No (545) 66 (12.1) 1    
Yes (405) 69 (17.0) 1.49 (1.03–2.15) 0.032 1.42 (0.97–2.08) 0.069
Previous admission* No (525) 39 (7.4) 1    
Yes (79) 8 (10.1) 1.40 (0.63–3.13) 0.406   
Intravenous line No (254) 27 (10.6) 1    
Yes (696) 108 (15.5) 1.54 (0.99–2.42) 0.058   
Urinary catheter No (930) 132 (14.2) 1    
Yes (20) 3 (15.0) 1.07 (0.31–3.69) 0.919   
Co-morbidities** No (558) 85 (15.2) 1    
Yes (392) 50 (12.8) 0.81 (0.56–1.18) 0.282   
Prematurity No (900) 121 (13.4) 1    
Yes (50) 14 (28.0) 2.50 (1.31–4.78) 0.005 1.15 (0.58–2.25) 0.691
Malnutrition No (825) 126 (15.3) 1    
Yes (125) 9 (7.2) 0.43 (0.21–0.87) 0.019 0.52 (0.22–1.20) 0.126
HIV Negative (913) 129 (14.1) 1    
Positive (37) 6 (16.2) 1.18 (0.48–2.88) 0.722   
SCD No (921) 132 (14.3) 1    
Yes (29) 3 (10.3) 0.69 (0.21–2.31) 0.547   
  1. BMC Bugando Medical Center, SRRH Sekou Toure Regional Referral Hospital, NDH Nyamagana District Hospital, SDDH Sengerema District Designated Hospital:* In the past three months (excluding current admission); **Malnutrition (n = 105), Respiratory tract infections (n = 86), Prematurity (n = 50), Congenital anomalies (n = 36: congenital heart diseases, neural tube defects, hydrocephalus and others), Anemia (n = 31), SCD: Sickle cell disease (n = 26),HIV (n = 19), Skin and soft tissue infections (n = 8); Necrotising enterocolitis (n = 3); Amoebiasis (n = 2); Burn injury (n = 2); Rheumatic heart diseases (n = 2); Cerebral malaria (n = 1); Spinal injury (n = 1); Malnutrition and HIV (n = 17); Malnutrition and sickle cell disease (n = 3); Premature and HIV (n = 1)