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Table 2 Bivariable associations with recurrent severe anemia

From: Risk factors for recurrent severe anemia among previously transfused children in Uganda: an age-matched case-control study

Variable Study category
Cases N = 101 Controls N = 95 *Crude odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Socio-demographics
Age in months, mean (SD) 32.2 (14.3) 30.3 (14.5)   
Sex, n (%)
 Female 38 (40.0) 43 (42.6) 1.00  
 Male 57 (60.0) 58 (57.4) 0.92 (0.45,1.85) 0.805
Occupation of caregiver, n (%)
 Un-employed 76 (75.2) 72 (75.8) 1.00  
 Employed 25 (24.8) 23 (24.2) 0.94 (0.43,2.04) 0.879
Highest education level of mother, n (%)
 None and primary 78 (77.2) 66 (69.5) 1.00  
 Secondary and above 23 (22.8) 29 (30.5) 0.88 (0.42,1.84) 0.727
Mother’s age, n (%)
  ≤ 28 years 51 (56.0) 46 (54.8) 1.00  
  ≥ 29 years 40 (44.0) 38 (45.2) 0.58 (0.66,1.27) 0.173
No. of children in household, n (%)
  ≤ 2 24 (23.8) 22 (23.2) 1.00  
  ≥ 3 77 (76.2) 73 (76.8) 0.90 (0.40,2.01) 0.802
Total no. of people in household, n (%)
  ≤ 7 61 (60.4) 64 (67.4) 1.00  
  ≥ 8 40 (39.6) 31 (32.6) 1.05 (0.52,2.11) 0.895
No. of meals per day, n (%)
  ≤ 2 25 (41.7) 29 (67.4) 1.00  
  ≥ 3 35 (58.3) 14 (32.6) 1.73 (0.67,4.50) 0.258
History
 Passage of dark or red-colored urine, n (%)
  No 61 (60.4) 90 (94.7) 1.00  
  Yes 40 (39.4) 5 (5.3) 14.7 (3.34,64.80) < 0.001
 ACTs use prior to admission, n (%)
  No 66 (65.5) 79 (83.2) 1.00  
  Yes 35 (34.7) 16 (16.8) 2.67 (1.21,5.91) 0.015
 Malarial anemia at most recent admission
  No 25 (25.0) 18 (18.9) 1.00  
  Yes 75 (75.0) 77 (81.1) 0.39 (0.15,0.98) 0.044
 History of other previous admissions
  No 36 (35.6) 59 (62.1) 1.00  
  Yes 65 (64.4) 36 (37.9) 2.96 (1.59,5.52) < 0.001
 History of earlier previous transfusions
  No 52 (51.5) 78 (82.1) 1.00  
  Yes 49 (48.5) 17 (17.9) 4.32 (2.15,8.82) < 0.001
At current admission
 Malaria diagnosis
  No 33 (32.7) 45 (47.4) 1.00  
  Yes 68 (67.3) 50 (52.6) 2.19 (1.08,4.45) 0.030
 Suspected bacteremia diagnosis
  No 55 (54.5) 67 (70.5) 1.00  
  Yes 46 (45.5) 28 (29.5) 1.93 (0.97,3.84) 0.060
 Hemoglobinuria diagnosis
  No 63 (62.4) 90 (94.6) 1.00  
  Yes 38 (37.6) 5 (5.3) 12.18 (3.40,43.65) < 0.001
 ǂ Sickle cell status, newly diagnosed
  Normal (Hb-AA) 47 (73.4) 42 (84) 1.00  
  Sickle cell trait (Hb-AS) 8 (12.5) 2 (4) 1.44 (0.24,8.71) 0.692
  Sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) 9 (14.1) 6 (12.0) 4.21 (1.03,17.13) 0.045
 Reticulocyte production index
   > 2 20 (37.7) 14 (37.8) 1.00  
   ≤ 2 33 (62.3) 23 (62.2) 1.40 (0.37,5.22) 0.621
 MUAC, n (%)
   ≤ 12.5 cm 9 (9.1) 5 (5.3) 1.00  
   > 12.6 cm 90 (90.9) 89 (94.7) 0.41 (0.10,1.73) 0.223
 ABO blood grouping
  Group O 36 (50.0) 28 (50.0) 1.00  
  Non- group O 36 (50.0) 28 (50.0) 1.02 (0.41,2.57) 0.963
 MCV
   > 70 fl 41 (100) 36 (94.7)   
   ≤ 70 fl 0 (0) 2 (5.3)   
  1. * OR by McNemar method, ǂ114 samples tested, Group A = 28, B = 30, AB = 6 among 128 tested, no stat test done here