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Table 2 Means of the Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates total-scale and the subjective subscale and items

From: The influence of gestational age in the psychometric testing of the Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates

   Rater A Rater B Rater C Rater D Rater E
  Phase Means t1-t5 Means t1-t5 Means t1-t5 Means t1-t5 Means t1-t5
Range (Median) Range (Median) Range (Median) Range (Median) Range (Median)
BPSN total-scale Baseline 0.89–1.14 (1.06) 1.99–2.47 (2.21) 1.31–1.51 (1.38) 4.44–5.15 (4.98) 4.66–4.97 (4.80)
N = 81–142 Heel Stick 4.03–4.77 (4.14) 5.98–6.98 (6.33) 4.57–5.41 (4.87) 8.15–9.53 (8.29) 8.00–9.07 (8.52)
Recovery 1.84–2.30 (2.19) 3.08–3.40 (3.22) 2.37–2.67 (2.46) 5.27–6.27 (6.06) 5.37–5.99 (5.65)
Subjective subscale Baseline 0.89–1.14 (1.06) 1.99–2.47 (2.21) 1.31–1.51 (1.38) 4.44–5.15 (4.98) 4.66–4.97 (4.80)
N = 82–142 Heel Stick 2.51–2.82 (2.68) 4.64–4.96 (4.73) 3.00–3.35 (3.31) 6.59–7.47 (6.84) 6.65–7.04 (6.90)
Recovery 1.17–1.63 (1.45) 2.39–2.76 (2.51) 1.70–1.97 (1.77) 4.59–5.60 (5.28) 4.66–5.26 (4.94)
Sleeping Baseline 0.23–0.28 (0.23) 0.39–0.43 (0.41) 0.42–0.51 (0.47) 1.04–1.28 (1.19) 0.89–1.10 (1.05)
N = 95–143 Heel Stick 0.39–0.45 (0.42) 0.75–0.91 (0.89) 0.55–0.63 (0.60) 1.19–1.29 (1.23) 1.35–1.46 (1.41)
Recovery 0.20–0.32 (0.30) 0.40–0.49 (0.41) 0.41–0.51 (0.42) 1.02–1.31 (1.19) 0.89–1.08 (1.06)
Crying Baseline 0.02–0.06 (0.06) 0.04–0.09 (0.07) 0.04–0.10 (0.06) 0.06–0.11 (0.09) 0.07–0.12 (0.09)
N = 96–143 Heel Stick 0.21–0.30 (0.24) 0.30–0.43 (0.36) 0.31–0.42 (0.37) 0.35–0.47 (0.42) 0.36–0.48 (0.43)
Recovery 0.02–0.06 (0.03) 0.03–0.10 (0.06) 0.03–0.11 (0.07) 0.05–0.11 (0.06) 0.04–0.12 (0.09)
Consolation Baseline 0.02–0.06 (0.05) 0.05–0.10 (0.09) 0.04–0.12 (0.07) 0.77–1.07 (0.97) 0.03–0.12 (0.08)
N = 96–143 Heel Stick 0.21–0.32 (0.21) 0.31–0.48 (0.43) 0.28–0.43 (0.33) 1.19–1.48 (1.26) 0.35–0.55 (0.46)
Recovery 0.00–0.07 (0.02) 0.03–0.13 (0.06) 0.01–0.15 (0.09) 0.68–0.99 (0.85) 0.02–0.14 (0.11)
Skin colour Baseline 0.02–0.06 (0.04) 1.00–1.27 (1.11) 0.02–0.06 (0.03) 0.86–1.06 (0.97) 1.51–1.67 (1.61)
N = 96–143 Heel Stick 0.05–0.08 (0.07) 1.19–1.29 (1.26) 0.03–0.05 (0.03) 0.99–1.36 (1.07) 1.55–1.79 (1.69)
Recovery 0.00–0.06 (0.04) 1.05–1.18 (1.13) 0.02–0.04 (0.03) 0.89–1.09 (1.04) 1.48–1.69 (1.53)
Facial expression Baseline 0.16–0.29 (0.24) 0.17–0.29 (0.19) 0.22–0.32 (0.25) 0.73–0.86 (0.75) 0.83–0.89 (0.87)
N = 95–143 Heel Stick 0.50–0.64 (0.61) 0.61–0.69 (0.64) 0.60–0.65 (0.63) 1.01–1.13 (1.06) 1.08–1.18 (1.12)
Recovery 0.19–0.33 (0.24) 0.09–0.19 (0.17) 1.16–0.26 (0.23) 0.62–0.79 (0.69) 0.80–0.89 (0.87)
Posture Baseline 0.33–0.49 (0.40) 0.27–0.36 (0.30) 0.45–0.49 (0.48) 0.93–1.04 (0.99) 1.15–1.29 (1.19)
N = 97–143 Heel Stick 0.55–0.67 (0.60) 0.69–0.80 (0.78) 0.57–0.71 (0.70) 1.17–1.24 (1.20) 1.38–1.45 (1.41)
Recovery 0.32–0.43 (0.34) 0.20–0.34 (0.32) 0.37–0.46 (0.41) 0.80–0.94 (0.87) 1.06–1.20 (1.19)
Breathing Heel Stick 0.47–0.57 (0.50) 0.32–0.65 (0.54) 0.61–0.72 (0.65) 0.50–0.69 (0.64) 0.39–0.62 (0.47)
N = 84–142 Recovery 0.35–0.54 (0.45) 0.31–0.46 (0.40) 0.40–0.63 (0.58) 0.49–0.64 (0.53) 0.31–0.58 (0.41)
Raw Scores Baseline 26.7–27.9 (27.6) 25.7–26.9 (25.8) 27.8–29.5 (28.1) 26.0–26.9 (26.6) 28.4–30.1 (29.5)
Breathing Heel Stick 28.6–29.2 (28.5) 26.1–27.8 (27.0) 28.2–29.9 (28.9) 27.2–28.3 (27.5) 29.4–30.4 (30.0)
N = 91–142 Recovery 27.0–28.7 (27.7) 25.3–27.1 (26.2) 27.4–29.3 (28.3) 26.4–27.4 (26.6) 28.9–30.1 (29.7)
  1. Note. N = number of neonates included in the analysis. This number varies because of differences in the amount of missing data between the raters at each measurement point and differences in the number of neonates included at each point of measurement