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Table 4 Multivariable analysis on stunting with and without interaction effects between duration of breastfeeding and wealth index

From: Childhood stunting in Thailand: when prolonged breastfeeding interacts with household poverty

Factors With interaction terms Without interaction terms
Odds ratio (SE) 95%CI Odds ratio (SE) 95%CI
I. Parental level factors
 Maternal education
  No education 1.00   1.00  
  Primary 0.54 (0.12) 0.35–0.82*** 0.55 (0.12) 0.36–0.84*
  Secondary 0.42 (0.09) 0.27–0.64*** 0.42 (0.09) 0.28–0.65***
  Diploma 0.40 (0.10) 0.25–0.64*** 0.40 (0.10) 0.25–0.65***
  Bachelor’s degree 0.41 (0.10) 0.25–0.66*** 0.41 (0.10) 0.26–0.67***
  Higher Bachelor’s degree 0.76 (0.29) 0.37–1.59 0.77 (0.29) 0.37–1.60
 Mother’s age at birth
   < 20 year 1.00   1.00  
  20–29 years 0.89 (0.11) 0.69–1.13 0.89 (0.11) 0.70–1.13
  30–39 years 0.68 (0.09) 0.52–0.89*** 0.68 (0.09) 0.52–0.89*
  40 years and above 0.60 (0.11) 0.42–0.85* 0.60 (0.11) 0.42–0.86*
 Duration of breastfeeding
   < 12 months 1.00    
   > 12 months 1.35 (0.11) 1.15–1.58***   
 Number of ANC*
   < 4 Times 1.00   1.00  
    4 Times 1.03 (0.35) 0.53–2.01 1.02 (0.35) 0.52–2.00
  Cannot remember visit number 1.42 (0.66) 0.57–3.51 1.42 (0.66) 0.57–3.52
II. Child level factors
 Perceived size of baby at birth*
  Small 1.00   1.00  
  Average 0.68 (0.14) 0.45–1.03 0.69 (0.15) 0.45–1.04
  Large 0.59 (0.15) 0.36–0.98* 0.59 (0.15) 0.35–0.97*
  Cannot clearly determine the size 0.38 (0.14) 0.19–0.78* 0.38 (0.14) 0.18–0.78*
 History of recent diarrhoea
  Yes 1.00   1.00  
  No 1.07 (0.21) 0.73–1.56 1.07 (0.21) 0.73–1.56
III. Household level factors
 Wealth index
  Poorest 1.00    
  Poorer 0.74 (0.09) 0.58–0.95*   
  Middle 0.60 (0.08) 0.47–0.77***   
  Richer 0.48 (0.07) 0.37–0.63***   
  Richest 0.46 (0.07) 0.33–0.63***   
IV. Community level factors
 Type of residence
  Municipal 1.00   1.00  
  Non-municipal 1.13 (0.09) 0.96–1.32 1.12 (0.09) 0.96–1.32
 Geographic zone
  Bangkok 1.00   1.00  
  Central 0.76 (0.12) 0.56–1.05 0.77 (0.13) 0.56–1.06
  Northern 0.59 (0.10) 0.43–0.82*** 0.59 (0.10) 0.43–0.82***
  Northeastern 0.60 (0.10) 0.44–0.83*** 0.60 (0.10) 0.43–0.83***
  Southern 0.90 (0.14) 0.66–1.23 0.91 (0.14) 0.67–1.24
V. Duration of breastfeeding and Wealth index
 BF < 12 months and Poorest    1.00  
 BF < 12 months and Poor    0.86 (0.15) 0.61–1.21
 BF < 12 months and Middle    0.67 (0.12) 0.48–0.94*
 BF < 12 months and Rich    0.65 (0.11) 0.46–0.92*
 BF < 12 months and Richest    0.50 (0.10) 0.34–0.74***
 BF > 12 months and Poorest    1.79 (0.32) 1.26–2.55***
 BF > 12 months and Poor    1.16 (0.22) 0.80–1.67
 BF > 12 months and Middle    0.98 (0.19) 0.67–1.44
 BF > 12 months and Rich    0.53 (0.11) 0.35–0.81***
 BF > 12 months and Richest    0.80 (0.19) 0.51–1.27
  1. Note: * P-value < 0.05, **P-value < 0.01, and *** P-value < 0.001
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