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Table 1 Sample Characteristics of children and mothers stratified by antibiotic dose categories (n = 586)

From: The association between antibiotics in the first year of life and child growth trajectory

  Total Sample n = 586 No antibiotics n = 355 1–2 antibiotics n = 198 3+ antibiotics n = 33 p-value
Mother:      
Age (years; mean ± SD) 30.95 (±5.12) 30.95 (±5.07) 31.08 (±5.22) 30.24 (±5.08) 0.69
Gestational weight gain (kg; mean ± SD) 13.58 (±5.96) 13.49 (±5.70) 13.81 (±6.05) 13.10 (±8.02) 0.75
Pre-pregnancy WeightStatusa: (%)      
 Normal weight 48.63 49.01 48.99 42.42 0.73
 Overweight 27.82 27.61 28.28 27.27  
 Obese 23.55 23.38 22.73 30.30  
White vs. Other (%) 91.64 90.99 91.41 100.00 0.20
Married vs. Single (%) 88.57 89.01 86.87 93.94 0.46
Income (≥$40,000) (%) 68.77 69.58 65.66 78.79 0.28
Education (≥ college grad) (%) 55.46 57.75 48.99 69.70 0.03
Smoked during pregnancy (%) 5.12 3.94 6.57 9.09 0.23
Gestational Diabetes Mellitusb (%) 9.04 9.30 9.09 6.06 0.82
Exclusive Breast Feeding ×  4 mos (%) 30.21 32.85 25.51 30.30 0.20
Vaginal Delivery (%) 69.97 70.42 69.70 66.67 0.90
Infant:      
Sex: Male (%) 48.89 49.15 50.00 39.39 0.52
OW/OBc at 72 months (%) 11.09 8.17 14.65 21.21 0.01
Antibiotic Course: (%)      
 0 60.58     
 1–2 33.79     
 3+ 5.63     
Birth weight (kg; mean ± SD) 3.50 (±0.46) 3.49 (±0.45) 3.51 (±0.48) 3.48 (±0.44) 0.78
WL z-score (mean ± SD):      
 0 mos − 0.46 (±1.34) − 0.43 (±1.35) − 0.54 (±1.32) − 0.27 (±1.31) 0.48
 2 mos 0.02 (±1.52) − 0.07 (±1.43) 0.15 (±1.68) 0.38 (±1.37) 0.15
 4 mos 0.02 (±1.50) − 0.08(±1.47) 0.12 (±1.54) 0.48 (±1.53) 0.10
 6 mos 0.17 (±1.64) − 0.02 (±1.59) 0.43 (±1.68) 0.79 (±1.59) < 0.01
 12 mos 0.11 (±1.58) − 0.01 (±1.57) 0.32 (±1.59) 0.27 (±1.65) 0.11
BMI z-score (mean ± SD): 72 mos 0.31 (±1.23) 0.24 (±1.15) 0.37 (±1.30) 0.67 (±1.55) 0.14
  1. a Maternal pre-pregnancy weight status was classified by the following definitions: normal weight = 18.5–24.99, overweight = 25–29.99, obese ≥30 (mean = 36.03, S.D. 5.40)
  2. b Maternal diabetes was defined as self-report of gestational diabetes, juvenile onset diabetes, or adult onset diabetes during or prior to pregnancy
  3. WL z-score = Weight-for-length z-score
  4. BMI z-score = Body Mass Index z-score
  5. cOW/OB = Overweight/Obese; Children were identified as being OW/OB if they had a BMI z-score ≥ 1.64