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Table 9 Early Childhood Education Candidates’ Self-Efficacy Based on Candidates Meeting the Physical Activity Guideline for Adults

From: Exploring the physical activity and screen-viewing-related knowledge, training, and self-efficacy of early childhood education candidates

Item Mean Rank Mann-Whitney U z Adjusted p
Meeting Guideline Not Meeting Guideline
Self-Efficacy to Promote Physical Activity
Ensure children are engaging in adequate light physical activity (as per the Canadian guidelines) 365.83 330.48 20,115.00 −1.54 .12
Ensure children are engaging in adequate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (as per the Canadian guidelines) 377.82 327.22 18,975.50 −2.19 .06
Create a childcare environment that encourages active play 391.63 322.55 17,546.50 −3.08 .01*
Make good use of the environment and available equipment for play and physical activity 399.09 321.57 16,979.50 −3.44 .01*
Create opportunities for outdoor risky play (e.g., tree climbing, less ‘hovering’ on the playground, balancing activities) 380.64 325.70 18,609.00 −2.38 .05
Self-Efficacy to Teach Physical Activity
Model appropriate physical activity/movement behaviours 386.30 326.70 18,407.50 −2.62 .04*
Lead activities to improve children’s fitness development (e.g., cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, & coordination) 401.68 323.56 17,086.00 −3.40 .01*
Teach about the relationship between physical activity and health 380.97 326.23 18,660.00 −2.38 .05
Teach locomotor skills, traveling actions (jump, gallop, hop) 395.96 323.14 17,369.00 −3.24 .01*
Teach play skills (bike riding, sliding, swinging, climbing) 375.07 327.57 19,184.50 −2.08 .08
Teach rhythm skills 349.22 327.53 20,458.50 −.945 .35
Use a variety of methods that encourage physical activity 398.72 322.78 17,159.50 −3.34 .01*
Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity
Facilitate active play for young children in a limited space 385.62 322.86 17,728.50 −2.75 .01*
Lead outdoor active play opportunities even if I am tired 398.53 319.32 16,718.00 −3.50 .00*
Lead active play opportunities in challenging weather climates (e.g., rain, snow, extreme heat) 398.07 322.87 17,209.00 −3.26 .00*
  1. Note. Not meeting guideline indicates < 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week (CSEP, 2012b). Meeting guideline indicates ≥150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week (CSEP, 2012b). †The Holm-Bonferroni Method was applied to adjust the p-values for each set of multiple comparisons. *p < .05