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Table 8 Candidates’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour-Related Self-Efficacy, Total Sample and by Frequency of Course Content

From: Exploring the physical activity and screen-viewing-related knowledge, training, and self-efficacy of early childhood education candidates

Item Total Sample No Courses 1+ Courses Mean Rank Mann-Whitney U z Adj. p†
M SD M SD M SD No courses 1+ Courses
Self-Efficacy to Promote Physical Activity
Ensure children are engaging in adequate light physical activity 7.93 2.04 7.82 2.12 8.15 1.84 333.60 357.55 47,801.00 −1.53 .25
Ensure children are engaging in adequate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity 7.37 2.20 7.19 2.30 7.73 1.95 326.53 369.32 44,441.00 −2.70 .04*
Create an environment that encourages active play 8.43 1.77 8.33 1.83 8.65 1.60 326.80 359.14 45,461.00 −2.11 .14
Make good use of the environment and available equipment for play and physical activity 8.32 1.82 8.20 1.94 8.60 1.51 326.63 357.93 45,508.50 −2.03 .13
Create opportunities for outdoor risky play (e.g., tree climbing, less ‘hovering’ on the playground, balancing activities) 7.26 2.46 7.25 2.53 7.34 2.26 339.35 336.76 50,008.50 −.16 .87
Self-Efficacy to Teach Physical Activity
Model appropriate physical activity/movement behaviours 8.27 1.86 8.17 1.94 8.52 1.64 329.44 361.60 46,027.00 −2.07 .23
Lead activities to improve children’s fitness development (e.g., cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, & coordination) 7.71 2.17 7.64 2.22 7.87 2.06 332.93 351.37 47,863.50 −1.17 .72
Teach about the relationship between physical activity and health 7.66 2.11 7.62 2.17 7.79 1.97 335.55 346.07 48,936.50 −.67 .51
Teach locomotor skills, traveling actions (jump, gallop, hop) 8.29 1.94 8.19 2.06 8.54 1.65 330.46 353.28 46,991.50 −1.48 .69
Teach play skills (bike riding, sliding, swinging, climbing) 8.02 2.10 7.93 2.23 8.26 1.82 333.06 352.64 47,803.00 −1.25 .84
Teach rhythm skills 7.73 2.16 7.65 2.23 7.92 1.99 330.54 348.75 47,025.50 −1.16 .49
Use a variety of methods that encourage physical activity 8.11 1.94 7.98 2.01 8.39 1.76 325.36 363.62 44,685.00 −2.46 .10
Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity
Facilitate active play for young children in a limited space 7.96 2.00 7.85 2.10 8.23 1.74 327.87 354.00 46,065.50 −1.68 .09
Lead outdoor active play opportunities even if I am tired 7.98 2.00 7.85 2.11 8.24 1.76 324.62 355.91 44,975.00 −2.02 .13
Lead active play opportunities in challenging weather climates (e.g., rain, snow, extreme heat) 7.24 2.44 7.11 2.55 7.58 2.15 328.14 357.99 45,940.00 −1.89 .12
Self-Efficacy to Minimize Screen Viewing
Limit the amount of screen time children in my class engage in to less than 40 min per day (*2/3 of the daily recommendation) 8.21 2.41 8.20 2.39 8.36 2.38 331.33 346.60 42,530.00 −.962 .34
Minimize the use of screens as a reward for good behaviour 7.96 2.54 7.92 2.60 8.19 2.50 330.36 351.04 41,900.00 −1.29 .39
  1. Note. M = mean; SD standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U comparisons were between those with (1+ Courses) and without (No Courses) physical activity/screen viewing courses. ‘Adj.’ = Adjusted; †The Holm-Bonferroni Method was applied to adjust the p-values for each set of multiple comparisons. *p < .05