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Table 4 Candidates’ Physical Activity and Screen-Viewing-Related Knowledge, Total Sample and by Frequency of Course Content

From: Exploring the physical activity and screen-viewing-related knowledge, training, and self-efficacy of early childhood education candidates

  Total Sample No courses 1+ Courses X 2 Gamma Gamma SE T Adj. p
M SD M SD M SD
Physical Activity-Related Knowledge Item
Key features of gross motor development 5.30 .80 5.24 .86 5.46 .66 8.89 .12 .08 1.60 .87
Age appropriate movement skills for children 5.22 .84 5.16 .87 5.37 .77 2.50 .08 .07 1.14 1.00
The link between physical activity and cardiovascular health 5.00 .98 4.94 1.02 5.12 .89 5.38 .08 .07 1.19 1.00
The link between physical activity and muscular health 5.04 .96 5.00 .98 5.14 .93 1.88 .05 .07 .69 .49
The link between physical activity and psychosocial health 5.05 .94 5.01 .96 5.16 .92 1.38 .07 .07 1.01 1.00
The link between physical activity and learning 5.26 .84 5.20 .87 5.42 .73 5.85 .13 .07 1.77 .77
The link between physical activity, brain development, and preparing children for learning at school 5.22 .87 5.18 .90 5.31 .80 2.19 .08 .07 1.07 1.00
The link between physical inactivity and type 2 diabetes 4.82 1.18 4.82 1.17 4.84 1.19 11.28 .07 .07 .95 1.00
My college/university training has helped me understand important information about young children’s physical activity needs 5.15 .96 5.03 1.02 5.38 .79 14.99 .12 .07 1.70 .80
I have the skills and abilities I need to support young children’s physical activity 5.17 .93 5.08 1.00 5.35 .77 .72 .04 .06 .70 .97
Screen-Viewing-Related Knowledge Item
The link between screen-viewing and rates of childhood obesity 5.09 1.02 5.09 1.00 5.14 1.01 .09 −.02 .11 −.18 1.00
The link between screen-viewing and psychosocial health 4.98 1.05 4.98 1.02 5.03 1.08 1.88 .01 .10 .07 .95
The link between screen-viewing and cognition 4.94 1.03 4.93 1.01 5.05 1.06 .70 .06 .10 .64 1.00
The link between screen-viewing and high blood pressure 4.55 1.26 4.53 1.24 4.67 1.28 2.01 .07 .09 .85 1.00
The link between screen-viewing and irregular sleep patterns 4.96 1.12 4.96 1.08 5.02 1.11 .18 .01 .10 .13 1.00
  1. Note. PA-related knowledge item comparisons are based on number of PA-related courses taken, SV-related knowledge item comparisons are based on number of SV-related courses taken. M mean, SD standard deviation, SE Standard Error, ‘Adj.’ Adjusted, †The Holm-Bonferroni Method was applied to adjust the p-values for each set of multiple comparisons