Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical signs and symptoms and basic laboratory results associated to bacterial infection in univariate analysis

From: Can clinical signs or symptoms combined with basic hematology data be used to predict the presence of bacterial infections in febrile children under - 5 years?

  Bacterial infected group BSI UTI GII
Clinical signs and symptoms OR (IC 95%) P value OR (IC 95%) P value OR (IC 95%) P value OR (IC 95%) P value
Male 1.04(1.00;1.08) 0.034 a 1.13(6.69;1.86) 0.629 1.43(0.46;4.40) 0.537 1.66(1.01;2.74) 0.046 a
Age, month, median (IQR) 1.00(1.00;1.00) 0.050 a 1.00(0.98;1.02) 0.833 0.95(0.90;1.00) 0.069 a 0.98(0.96;1.0) 0.026 a
> 12 months (%) 1.01(0.96;1.05) 0.619 1.19(0.67;2.10) 0.555 0.50(0.16;1.55) 0.227 1.19(0.67;2.10) 0.555
Z-score Weight/age < 2SD in kg/month, kg/age, mean (SD) 0.99(0.98;1.00) 0.002 a 0.93(0.85;1.02) 0.123 0.75(0.58;0.96) 0.023 a 0.90(0.82;0.98) 0.021 a
Z-score Height/age < 2SD in cm/month, cm/kg, mean (SD) 1.00(1.00;1.00) 0.068 a 1.00(0.96;1.02) 0.683 0.95(0.90;1.00) 0.049 a 0.98(0.96;1.00) 0.072 a
Z-score MUAC<2SD in mm/age mm, mean (SD) 1.00(1.00;1.00) 0.430 1.00(1.00;1.01) 0.308 1.00(0.99;1.01) 0.758 1.00(0.99;1.00) 0.821
Cough 1.00(0.97;1.04) 0.884 1.36(0.83;2.23) 0.229 0.53(0.16;1.80) 0.308 0.86(0.52;1.43) 0.563
Diarrhea 1.06(1.02;1.10) 0.004 a 1.61(0.98;2.66) 0.061 a 4.53(1.33;15.42) 0.016 a 1.41(0.85;2.34) 0.178
Dehydration 1.11(1.00;1.23) 0.051 a 3.08(1.25;7.61) 0.015 a 2.56(0.31;16.38) 0.422 0.52(0.10;2.71) 0.434
Vomiting 1.01(0.96;1.06) 0.666 0.91(0.47;0.75) 0.773 1.00(0.24;4.08) 0.993 1.48(0.83;2.65) 0.183
Edema 1.47(1.21;1.80) < 0.001 a 9.48(2.67;33.67) 0.001 a 0.70(0.02;30.91) 0.854 1.55(0.23;10.33) 0.653
Jaundice 0.89(0.72;1.09) 0.251 0.35(0.02;7.30) 0.497 0.70(0.02;30.91) 0.854 0.35(0.02;7.30) 0.497
Convulsion 1.21(1.05;1.39) 0.009 a 3.74(1.23;11.40) 0.020 a 0.57(0.02;18.13) 0.752 1.65(0.40;6.77) 0.489
Pallor of conjunctiva 1.10(1.03;1.18) 0.003 a 4.20(2.34;7.52) < 0.001 a 1,94(0.45;8.47) 0.376 0.65(0.24;1.73) 0.387
Axillary temperature [5, 38, 39] 1.01(0.97;1.05) 0.496 1.16(0.65;2.05) 0.496 1.35(0.42;4.34) 0.505 1.28(0.75;2.20) 0.900
Axillary temperature [5, 39, 42] 1.07(1.02;1.14) 0.013 a 2.23(1.19;4.18) 0.496 0.72(0.12;4.36) 0.505 1.30(0.64;2.63) 0.900
Fever (38.5 °C), 0.99(0.93;1.01) 0.108 0.68(0.41;1.12) 0.131 0.87(0.28;2.69) 0.812 0.77(0.47;1.28) 0.313
Bronchial congestion 0.97(0.85;1.10) 0.602 1.15(0.37;3.62) 0.807 1.96(0.28;13.72) 0.499 0.78(0.21;2.92) 0.712
Splenomegaly 1.18(1.07;1.29) < 0.001 a 6.80(3.40;13.57) 0.000 a 0.39(0.02;8.71) 0.556 0.718(0.19;2.66) 0.620
Hepatomegaly 1.10(1.01;1.19) 0.030 a 3.50(1.69;7.23) 0.001 a 0.35(0.02;7.28) 0.500 0.59(0.16;2.15) 0.423
Basic Laboratory datac         
Hemoglobin < 8 1.09(1.03;1.16) 0.004 a 3.21(1.46;7.07) 0.004 a 1.38(0.32;5.98) 0.663 1.21(0.54;2.74) 0.645
Hemoglobin [8,9,10,11] 1.01(0.95;1.07) 0.696 0.68(0.30;1.57) 0.366 0.56(0.13;2.4) 0.444 1.25(0.60;2.65) 0.552
Leucocytes < 4 1.07(0.95;1.22) 0.279 2.07(0.61;7.01) 0.241 0.59(0.018;19.90) 0.771 1.10(0.28;4.33) 0.90
Leucocytes≥12 0.98 (0.94;1.02) 0.361 1.15(0.69;1.91) 0.590 2.04(0.64;6.52) 0.227 0.65(0.38;1.10) 0.106
  1. a Statistically significant
  2. b According to nurse’s appreciations
  3. c hemoglobin value was g/dl; leucocyte value was 103/μl
  4. BSI Bloodstream infection, GII Gastro-intestinal infection, UTI Urinary tract infection
  5. Note The different data were adjusted for gender, age and weigh during the multivariate analysis
  6. MUAC Mid-Upper Arm Circumference