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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted models predicting a pain report

From: Prevalence of pain reports in pediatric primary care and association with demographics, body mass index, and exam findings: a cross-sectional study

  Unadjusted Models Adjusted Model 1a (n = 26,180) Adjusted Model 2b (n = 15,954)
OR 90% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
BMI Class
 Normal Weight (Ref)
 Underweight 1.05 (0.9–1.21) 1.14 (0.95–1.37) 1.26 (1–1.58)**
 Overweight 1.13 (1.04–1.22)* 1.09 (0.99–1.2) 1.12 (0.99–1.27)
 Obese 1.28 (1.18–1.39)* 1.23 (1.11–1.35)** 1.2 (1.06–1.36)**
 Severely obese 1.43 (1.29–1.58)* 1.32 (1.17–1.49)** 1.26 (1.08–1.48)**
Age
 2–5 years old (Ref)
 6–11 years old 1.37 (1.28–1.47)* 1.33 (1.22–1.45)** 1.13 (1.02–1.26)**
 12–19 years old 1.44 (1.33–1.55)* 1.47 (1.33–1.61)** 1.25 (1.11–1.41)**
Sex
 Male (Ref)
 Female 1.2 (1.13–1.27)* 1.21 (1.12–1.29)** 1.2 (1.1–1.3)**
Race/ethnicity
 Black (Ref)       
 Hispanic 1.13 (1.06–1.21)* 1.19 (1–1.41)** 1.28 (1.02–1.6)**
 White 1.24 (1.13–1.37)* 1.52 (1.23–1.88)** 1.58 (1.18–2.11)**
 Other 1.29 (1.18–1.42)* 1.3 (1.02–1.65)** 1.25 (0.89–1.75)
Insurance type
 Public (Ref)
 Commercial 1.01 (0.89–1.13) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 1.04 (0.86–1.25)
 Other 1.08 (0.95–1.23) 1.1 (0.94–1.29) 1.02 (0.81–1.28)
Clinic site
 Clinic 1 (Ref)
 Clinic 2 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 1.12 (0.88–1.42)
 Clinic 3 1.25 (1.15–1.35)* 1.29 (1.11–1.51)** 1.36 (1.11–1.68)**
 Clinic 4 1.2 (1.1–1.31)* 0.75 (0.59–0.96)** 0.98 (0.69–1.39)
 Clinic 5 1.28 (1.18–1.39)* 1.01 (0.85–1.21) 1.18 (0.94–1.49)
Pre-screener form (PSF) medium
 Paper (Ref)
 Tablet 1.73 (1.62–1.84)* 1.77 (1.62–1.93)** 1.73 (1.53–1.96)**
Season
 Autumn (Ref)
 Winter 1.22 (1.14–1.32)* 1.21 (1.1–1.32)** 1.2 (1.08–1.35)**
 Spring 1.11 (1.02–1.21)* 1.15 (1.04–1.27)** 1.18 (1.04–1.35)**
 Summer 0.76 (0.7–0.82)* 0.76 (0.69–0.83)** 0.72 (0.64–0.82)**
Pain reported at preceding visit
 No (Ref)
 Yes 2.86 (2.64–3.11)*    2.67 (2.42–2.95)**
Clinic:Race interaction terms
 Clinic 2:Hispanic    0.71 (0.41–1.17) 0.66 (0.3–1.31)
 Clinic 2:White    0.93 (0.54–1.53) 0.86 (0.41–1.7)
 Clinic 2:Other    0.55 (0.22–1.19) 0.33 (0.05–1.16)
 Clinic 3:Hispanic    0.89 (0.63–1.23) 1.01 (0.66–1.51)
 Clinic 3:White    0.78 (0.55–1.09) 0.86 (0.55–1.35)
 Clinic 3:Other    0.71 (0.45–1.08) 0.92 (0.51–1.62)
 Clinic 4:Hispanic    1.44 (1.08–1.93)** 1.21 (0.81–1.83)
 Clinic 4:White    0.87 (0.58–1.29) 0.74 (0.42–1.31)
 Clinic 4:Other    1.38 (0.97–1.96) 1.31 (0.8–2.18)
 Clinic 5:Hispanic    0.91 (0.72–1.15) 0.83 (0.62–1.12)
 Clinic 5:White    0.93 (0.68–1.28) 0.84 (0.57–1.25)
 Clinic 5:Other    0.89 (0.64–1.25) 0.85 (0.55–1.32)
  1. aModel 1: Adjusted for BMI class, age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, pre-screener form medium, season, with race:clinic interaction terms
  2. bModel 2: In addition to Model 1 covariates, includes pain report at prior visit. Limited to patients for whom a pain screen exists at the preceding visit
  3. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05