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Table 3 Clinical management and interim outcomes of neonates with birth weight recorded upon admission to neonatology units at two rural district hospitals in Rwanda (N = 1518)

From: A retrospective study of neonatal case management and outcomes in rural Rwanda post implementation of a national neonatal care package for sick and small infants

  All neonates (N = 1518) Low birth weight (< 2500 g) (N = 701) Normal birth weight (≥2500 g) (N = 817) p-value
n % n % n %  
Vital signs
 Vital signs checked every 3 h for the first 48 h of admission N = 1168 N = 556 N = 612  
  Yes (≥15 times) 965 82.6 478 86.0 487 79.6 0.004
  No (< 15 times) 203 17.4 78 14.0 125 20.4
Thermoregulation
 Initial temperature measured within 30 min of admission N = 1476 N = 683 N = 793  
  Yes 812 55.0 367 53.7 445 56.1 0.373
  No 664 45.0 316 46.3 348 43.9
 Initial temperature < 36 °C N = 1480 N = 684 N = 796  
  Yes 435 29.4 249 36.4 186 23.4 < 0.001
  No 1045 70.6 435 63.6 610 76.6
 If initial temperature < 36 °C, temperature improved from < 36 °C to > 36 °C within 2 h N = 402 N = 234 N = 168  
  Yes 156 38.8 99 42.3 57 33.9 0.097
  No 246 61.2 135 57.7 111 66.1
Hypoglycemia
 Low blood sugar (< 40/< 45 mg/dl) N = 871 N = 418 N = 453  
  Yes 31 3.6 21 5.0 10 2.2 0.028
  No 840 96.4 397 95.0 443 97.8
 If blood sugar low, improved to > 40/> 45 mg/dl within 1 h N = 12 N = 7 N = 5  
  Yes 2 16.7 1 14.3 1 20 > 0.999
  No 10 83.3 6 85.7 4 80
Infectious diseases
 Received antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin)a N = 334 N = 69 N = 265  
  Yes 312 93.4 68 98.6 244 92.1 0.053
  No 22 6.6 1 1.4 21 7.9
 Ampicillin received at correct dose and interval N = 301 N = 66 N = 235  
  Yes 204 67.8 36 54.6 168 71.5 0.009
  No 97 32.2 30 45.4 67 28.5
 Gentamicin received at correct does and interval N = 286 N = 64 N = 222  
  Yes 146 51.0 23 35.9 123 55.4 0.006
  No 140 49.0 41 64.1 99 44.6
Fluid electrolytes and nutrition
 Regained birth weight within 2 weeksb N = 225 N = 169 N = 56  
  Yes 126 56.0 88 52.1 38 67.9 0.044
  No 99 44.0 81 47.9 18 32.1
Respiratory distress
 Received caffeinec   N = 548   
  Yes   206 37.6    
  No   342 62.4    
 Received oxygen therapy N = 1491 N = 690 N = 801  
  Yes 603 40.4 278 40.3 325 40.6 0.916
  No 888 59.6 412 59.7 476 59.4
 Method of oxygen therapy N = 540 N = 247 N = 293  
  Mask/nasal cannula 449 83.1 185 74.9 264 90.1 < 0.001
  bCPAP 91 16.9 62 25.1 29 9.9
 If eligible, received bCPAPd   N = 107   
  Yes    13 12.2    
  No    94 87.8    
 Duration of oxygen therapy in hours Median IQR Median IQR Median IQR  
  Mask/nasal cannula 24 20, 96 48 24, 120 24 14, 72 0.050
  bCPAP 60 24, 120 72 24, 144 48 24, 72 0.093
  1. aFor neonates with primary diagnosis of infection; bRestricted to neonates that were hospitalized for at least 2 weeks; cRestricted to preterm neonates (< 33 weeks) or LBW (< 1500 g); dRestricted to preterm (< 33 weeks) or LBW (< 1500 g) neonates with any sign of respiratory distress
  2. oC degrees centigrade, gm/dl grams per decilitre, bCPAP bubble continuous positive airway pressure, IQR inter-quartile range