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Table 2 Socio-demographic and medical factors related to nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci in children living in eastern DR Congo

From: High rate of antibiotic resistance among pneumococci carried by healthy children in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Socio-demographic factors: N carrier/N (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age in months
  < 6 29/302 (9.6) 1.00    
 6–12 46/184 (25) 1.41 (0.85–2.36) 0.170 0.14 (0.08–0.26) 0.750
  > 12–24 32/125 (26) 2.12 (1.25–3.62) 0.005 0.77 (0.44–1.36) 0.381
  > 24–60 56/183 (31) 3.45 (2.19–5.44) < 0.0001 0.90 (0.48–1.68) < 0.0001
 Sex, male 91/402 (23) 1.30 (0.92–1.84) 0.13 1.17 (0.78–1.77) 0.437
 Living in rural area 98/355 (28) 2.51 (1.67–3.77) < 0.0001 0.57 (0.33–0.97) 0.039
No of people sleeping in the same room as the child
  < 3 3/31 (9.7) 1.00    
  ≥ 3 74/253 (29)   0.018 1.27 (0.45–3.55) 0.644
 Enclosed kitchena (N = 77) 43/77 (56) 6.47 (3.62–11.56) < 0.0001 10.18 (4.93–21.02) < 0.0001
Medical factors
 Undernutritionb (N = 286) 83/286 (29) 2.18 (1.54–3.10) < 0.0001 0.48 (0.32–0.73) 0.001
 Current feverc (N = 22) 14/22 (64) 5.52 (2.21–13.78) < 0.0001 7.96 (2.38–26.58) 0.001
 Previous hospitalisation (N = 74) 27/74 (36) 1.83 (1.04–3.25) 0.035 1.61 (0.72–3.59) 0.244
 Antibiotics last month (N = 55) 23/55 (42) 2.32 (1.25–4.31) 0.006 2.42 (1.07–5.45) 0.033
 Neonatal problemsd (n = 284) 22/51 (43.1) 2.45 (1.30–4.61) 0.004 1.27 (0.53–3.02) 0.580
PCV13 immunisation
 2 or 3 doses (n = 646e) 9/283 (3.2) 1.00    
 1 dose (n = 773) 46/159 (29) 12.39 (5.87–26.16) < 0.0001 30.12 (14.36–63) < 0.0001
 0 dose (n = 773) 108/331 (33) 13.47 (6.68–27.17) < 0.0001 20.57 (9.41–44.96) < 0.0001
  1. aEnclosed kitchen = Kitchen with an open fire located inside the house directly connected to the living room and/or the bedrooms
  2. bUndernutrition = weight for age or weight for height as a Z score ≤ −2 standard deviations, determined by ENA for smart software 2011
  3. cFever = 37.5–39.0 °C
  4. dNeonatal problems = neonatal hospitalisation, neonatal asphyxia or neonatal resuscitation
  5. e645 = the number of children that were supposed to be given ≥2 doses of PCV13 when they were older than 10 weeks or two and a half months