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Table 4 Association of the socio-demographic, family domain, peer domain, personality domain, and behavioral domain factors with problematic social networking site usage (PSNSU)

From: Problematic social networking site usage and substance use by young adolescents

VARIABLES MODALITIES PSNSU Yes (n = 241) p
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC Sex Male (n = 653) 17.3% 0.085
Female (n = 591) 21.2%
Nationality Italian (n = 969) 18.3% 0.002
Not Italian (n = 204) 27.9%
FAMILY DOMAIN Father’s alcohol consumption Yes (n = 363) 25.3% < 0.001
No (n = 842) 16.3%
Mother’s alcohol consumption Yes (n = 176) 25.0% 0.038
No (n = 1031) 18.3%
Sibling’s alcohol consumption Yes (n = 42) 38.1% 0.001
No (n = 1005) 18.0%
Father’s smoking Yes (n = 291) 26.1% < 0.001
No (n = 964) 16.8%
Mother’s smoking Yes (n = 183) 23.5% 0.093
No (n = 1075) 18.2%
Sibling’s smoking Yes (n = 88) 33.0% 0.001
No (n = 1012) 18.0%
Weekly pocket money 1–10 €/week (n = 250) 17.6% 0.023
More than 10 €/week (n = 120) 28.3%
No (n = 894) 18.1%
PEER DOMAIN Friends’ smoking Yes (n = 352) 35.5% < 0.001
No (n = 896) 12.6%
Friends’ alcohol consumption Yes (n = 99) 49.5% < 0.001
No (n = 1034) 16.5%
PERSONALITY DOMAIN Obeying rules Always obeys the rules (n = 886) 14.5% < 0.001
No respect for rules (n = 360) 30.8%
Parish groups Yes (n = 752) 16.1% 0.002
No (n = 507) 23.1%
Volunteering Yes (n = 174) 19.9% 0.086
No (n = 1081) 14.4%
Artistic activities Yes (n = 403) 15.4% 0.024
No (n = 853) 20.8%
Playing sport Yes (n = 1085) 17.7% 0.002
No (n = 177) 27.7%
BEHAVIORAL DOMAIN Returning home in the evenings From 18 to 21:59 h (n = 665) 21.2% 0.028
After 22 h (n = 168) 29.2%
Hours of sleep > 8 h (n = 1066) 15.9% < 0.001
< 8 h (n = 195) 36.9%
Text messages sent 0–15 text messages (n = 297) 7.1% < 0.001
16–99 text messages (n = 415) 19.3%
100–499 text messages (n = 314) 29.0%
≥500 text messages (n = 80) 47.5%
Gambling Yes (n = 419) 26.7% < 0.001
No (n = 845) 15.2%
Hours spent watching TV From 30 min to 2 h / day (n = 721) 18.5% 0.009
More than 2 h / day (n = 333) 23.7%
Smoking in the last month Yes (n = 90) 52.2% < 0.001
No (n = 1175) 16.5%
Alcohol consumption in the last month Yes (n = 229) 35.4% < 0.001
No (n = 1036) 15.4%
Energy drinks consumption in the last month Yes (n = 184) 39.7% < 0.001
No (n = 1081) 15.5%
  1. The following variables were tested and found unassociated (p > 0.10) with PSNSU (data not shown): Separated parents, Rules for returning home, Older sibling > 13 years old, Size of group of friends, Decision-maker in group of friends, Hours spent playing with videogames, Education