Skip to main content

Table 3 Association of socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle characteristics with MHO after age and sex adjustment

From: Prevalence and predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents: findings from the national “Jeeluna” study in Saudi-Arabia

  IDF-MHO CR-MHO
  OR (95% CI)* p-value OR (95% CI)* p-value
Socio-demographic
 Age (years) 0.88 (0.81–0.95) 0.001 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.65
  Gender
  Males reference   reference  
  Females 1.43 (1.06–1.94) 0.02 1.59 (1.19–2.12) 0.002
 Father’s level of education
  Elementary or less reference   reference  
  Intermediate or high school 1.13 (0.73–1.76) 0.58 0.68 (0.46–1.02) 0.06
  University or higher 1.07 (0.68–1.70) 0.76 0.83 (0.55–1.25) 0.37
 Mother’s level of education
  Elementary or less reference   reference  
  Intermediate or high school 1.18 (0.80–1.73) 0.4 0.99 (0.69–1.42) 0.95
  University or higher 1.23 (0.82–1.87) 0.32 1.14 (0.77–1.68) 0.5
Anthropometric
 Weight (Kg) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) < 0.0001 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.01
 BMI (Kg/m2) 0.87 (0.83–0.91) < 0.0001 0.96 (0.93–1.00) 0.03
 BMI Z score 0.36 (0.26–0.51) < 0.0001 0.78 (0.62–0.98) 0.03
 WC (cm) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.0001 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.74
 Elevated WC NA   0.74 (0.55–1.00) 0.05
Dietary Habits
 Regular breakfast consumption in the past month
  No reference   reference  
  Yes 0.90 (0.66–1.23) 0.51 1.09 (0.81–1.47) 0.55
 Frequency of snacks consumption/d
   ≥ 3 reference   reference  
  2 0.77 (0.49–1.22) 0.27 0.79 (0.52–1.21) 0.28
   ≤ 1 1.01 (0.68–1.50) 0.96 0.81 (0.56–1.17) 0.27
 Frequency of fruits consumption/d
  0 reference   reference  
  1 0.78 (0.49–1.25) 0.3 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 0.38
   ≥ 2 1.04 (0.73–1.49) 0.81 0.81 (0.57–1.15) 0.24
 Frequency of vegetables consumption/d
  0 reference   reference  
  1 0.89 (0.63–1.27) 0.54 0.70 (0.50–0.98) 0.04
   ≥ 2 1.12 (0.76–1.65) 0.56 0.83 (0.57–1.20) 0.32
 Frequency of soft drinks consumption/d
   ≥ 2 reference   reference  
   ≤ 1 0.73 (0.54–1.00) 0.05 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 0.66
 Frequency of power drinks consumption/d
   ≥ 1 reference   reference  
  0 0.86 (0.60–1.25) 0.43 1.04 (0.72–1.49) 0.84
 Frequency of milk drinks consumption/d
  0 reference   reference  
  1 0.85 (0.59–1.21) 0.36 0.88 (0.63–1.24) 0.48
   ≥ 2 0.87 (0.56–1.35) 0.53 0.91 (0.60–1.39) 0.67
Frequency of fast food consumption/week 0.97 (0.90–1.06) 0.50 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.58
Physical Activity and Sedentarity
 Exercise in school
  No reference   reference  
  Yes 1.19 (0.81–1.74) 0.37 1.13 (0.79–1.61) 0.51
 Screen Time
   > 2 h/day reference   reference  
   ≤ 2 h/day 1.01 (0.67–1.52) 0.96 1.08 (0.73–1.59) 0.71
Frequency of exercise for at least 30 mn in the past week 0.98 (0.91–1.04) 0.45 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 0.21
Sleep
 Number of sleep hrs per night, during week days     
  Inadequate reference   reference  
  Adequate 1.31 (0.97–1.78) 0.08 1.34 (1.00–1.80) 0.05
 Number of sleep hrs per night, during weekends
  Inadequate reference   reference  
  Adequate 1.10 (0.79–1.53) 0.57 1.03 (0.75–1.41) 0.86
Number of days went to sleep during the day in the past week 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 0.44 1.05 (1.00–1.11) 0.05
Smoking
 Smoking cigarette during the past month
  Yes reference   reference  
  No 0.75 (0.43–1.30) 0.3 1.00 (0.59–1.71) 0.99
 Smoking shisha during the past month
  Yes reference   reference  
  No 0.88 (0.47–1.63) 0.68 0.88 (0.50–1.55) 0.66
  1. *Analyses were adjusted for age and sex except for BMI Z score since this variable already adjusts for inter-individual differences in age and sex
  2. Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CI: Confidence interval; cm: Centimeters; CR: Cardiovascular risks; d: Day; hrs: Hours; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; kg: Kilograms; kg/m2: Kilograms per squared meters; MHO: Metabolically healthy obesity; mn: Minutes; OR: Odds ratio; WC: Waist circumference