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Table 2 Dietary and lifestyle characteristics amongst adolescents (n = 1047) in KSA by MUO or MHO status

From: Prevalence and predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents: findings from the national “Jeeluna” study in Saudi-Arabia

  IDF CR
  MUO
(n = 828)
MHO
(n = 219)
p-value MUO
(n = 798)
MHO
(n = 249)
p-value
Dietary habits
 Regular breakfast consumption during the past month
  No 360 (44) 104 (48.2) 0.27 353 (44.7) 111 (45.1) 0.92
  Yes 459 (56) 112 (51.9)   436 (55.3) 135 (54.9)  
 Frequency of snacks consumption/d
  0 444 (54.1) 124 (57.4) 0.39 437 (55.3) 131 (53.3) 0.5
  1 220 (26.8) 48 (22.2)   207 (26.2) 61 (24.8)  
   ≥ 2 157 (19.1) 44 (20.4)   147 (18.6) 54 (22)  
 Frequency of fruits consumption/d
  0 503 (61.1) 134 (61.5) 0.51 475 (59.9) 162 (65.3) 0.31
  1 125 (15.2) 27 (12.4)   119 (15) 33 (13.3)  
   ≥ 2 195 (23.7) 57 (26.2)   199 (25.1) 53 (21.4)  
 Frequency of vegetables consumption/d
  0 385 (46.8) 100 (46.1) 0.59 357 (45) 128 (51.8) 0.14
  1 266 (32.3) 65 (30)   263 (33.2) 68 (27.5)  
   ≥ 2 172 (20.9) 52 (24)   173 (21.8) 51 (20.7)  
 Frequency of soft drinks consumption/d
   ≤ 1 320 (38.8) 95 (44.2) 0.15 317 (39.9) 98 (40.0) 0.98
   ≥ 2 504 (61.2) 120 (55.8)   477 (60.1) 147 (60.0)  
 Frequency of energy drinks consumption/d
  0 657 (79.8) 170 (78.3) 0.63 629 (79.2) 198 (80.5) 0.67
   ≥ 1 166 (20.2) 47 (21.7)   165 (20.8) 48 (19.5)  
 Frequency of milk consumption/d
  0 468 (57.3) 129 (60.3) 0.73 449 (57.1) 148 (60.4) 0.66
  1 223 (27.3) 54 (25.2)   215 (27.4) 62 (25.3)  
   ≥ 2 126 (15.4) 31 (14.5)   122 (15.5) 35 (14.3)  
Frequency of fast food consumption/week 2.03 ± 1.94 1.87 ± 1.78 0.29 2.03 ± 1.95 1.9 ± 1.76 0.36
Physical Activity and sedentarity
 Exercise in school
  No 486 (59.7) 130 (60.8) 0.78 464 (59) 152 (62.8) 0.29
  Yes 328 (40.3) 84 (39.3)   322 (41) 90 (37.2)  
   Frequency of exercise for at least 30 mn during the past week 1.76 ± 2.34 1.64 ± 2.3 0.51 1.8 ± 2.36 1.52 ± 2.2 0.11
 Screen time
   ≤ 2 h/d 132 (18.7) 37 (19.5) 0.81 126 (18.5) 43 (20) 0.63
   > 2 h/d 573 (81.3) 153 (80.5)   554 (81.5) 172 (80)  
Sleep
 Number of hours of sleep per night, during week days
  Adequate 325 (40.3) 100 (46.3) 0.11 312 (40.1) 113 (46.5) 0.07
  Inadequate 481 (59.7) 116 (53.7)   467 (60) 130 (53.5)  
 Number of hours of sleep per night, during weekends
  Adequate 334 (48.1) 92 (50.8) 0.52 323 (48.4) 103 (49.5) 0.78
  Inadequate 360 (51.9) 89 (49.2)   344 (51.6) 105 (50.5)  
Number of days went to sleep during the day in the past week 3.79 ± 2.86 3.86 ± 2.95 0.73 3.69 ± 2.89 4.14 ± 2.83 0.03
Smoking
 Smoking cigarettes during the past month
  No 746 (91.2) 196 (91.2) 0.99 715 (91) 227 (91.9) 0.65
  Yes 72 (8.8) 19 (8.8)   71 (9) 20 (8.1)  
 Smoking Shisha during the past month
  No 755 (92.4) 200 (93.5) 0.6 726 (92.6) 229 (92.7) 0.95
  Yes 62 (7.6) 14 (6.5)   58 (7.4) 18 (7.3)  
  1. Screen time was assessed based on the time spent watching television, using the internet, chatting and playing videogames
  2. Adequate sleep defined as a minimum of 9 h for 10–12 year old adolescents and as a minimum of 8 h for those aged13 years or older [82]
  3. Abbreviations: CR: Cardiovascular risks; d: Day; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; KSA: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; MHO: Metabolically healthy obesity; mn: Minutes; MUO: Metabolically unhealthy obesity