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Table 1 Socio-demographic, anthropometric and cardiometabolic status amongst adolescents (n = 1047) in KSA by MUO or MHO status

From: Prevalence and predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in adolescents: findings from the national “Jeeluna” study in Saudi-Arabia

  IDF CR
  MUO
(n = 828)
MHO
(n = 219)
p-value MUO
(n = 798)
MHO
(n = 249)
p-value
Socio-demographic
 Age (years) 15.88 ± 1.85 15.41 ± 1.86 0.0008 15.77 ± 1.85 15.81 ± 1.91 0.81
 Gender
  Males 534 (64.5) 121 (55.3) 0.01 520 (65.2) 135 (54.2) 0.002
  Females 294 (35.5) 98 (44.8)   278 (34.8) 114 (45.8)  
 Father’s level of education
  Elementary or less 145 (19.7) 35 (18) 0.84 128 (18.1) 52 (23.2) 0.17
  Intermediate-high school 331 (45) 91 (46.7)   330 (46.7) 92 (41.1)  
  University or higher 259 (35.2) 69 (35.4)   248 (35.1) 80 (35.7)  
 Mother’s level of education
  Elementary or less 251 (33.7) 57 (28.9) 0.45 235 (32.8) 73 (32.2) 0.82
  Intermediate- high school 291 (39) 81 (41.1)   285 (39.8) 87 (38.3)  
  University or higher 204 (27.4) 59 (30)   196 (27.4) 67 (29.5)  
Anthropometric
 Height (cm) 162.78 ± 10.43 158.08 ± 11.42 < 0.0001 162.2 ± 10.97 160.5 ± 10.2 0.03
 Weight (kg) 88.45 ± 17.4 77.11 ± 14.27 < 0.0001 86.94 ± 17.63 83.31 ± 16.4 0.004
 BMI (kg/m2) 33.28 ± 5.43 30.76 ± 4.25 < 0.0001 32.93 ± 5.44 32.19 ± 4.79 0.04
 BMI Z score 2.82 ± 0.75 2.5 ± 0.57 < 0.0001 2.78 ± 0.74 2.67 ± 0.66 0.02
 WC (cm) 93.32 ± 18.78 80.97 ± 16.84 < 0.0001 91.08 ± 19.55 89.65 ± 17.37 0.27
 Elevated WC 447 (54.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.0001 357 (44.7) 90 (36.1) 0.02
Cardiometabolic
 SBP (mm Hg) 127.66 ± 11.96 118.05 ± 7.8 < 0.0001 128.6 ± 11.32 116.19 ± 8.08 < 0.0001
 DBP (mm Hg) 72.84 ± 10.85 67.75 ± 8.7 < 0.0001 73.37 ± 10.88 66.64 ± 7.9 < 0.0001
 TC (mmol/L) 4.35 ± 0.78 4.24 ± 0.62 0.04 4.36 ± 0.77 4.2 ± 0.66 0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.13 ± 0.23 1.29 ± 0.2 < 0.0001 1.13 ± 0.24 1.27 ± 0.19 < 0.0001
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.79 ± 0.7 2.63 ± 0.6 0.001 2.8 ± 0.69 2.63 ± 0.64 0.0007
 TG (mmol/L) 1.26 ± 0.76 0.87 ± 0.29 < 0.0001 1.3 ± 0.76 0.79 ± 0.21 < 0.0001
 Glucose (mmol/L) 4.62 ± 0.96 4.41 ± 0.67 0.0003 4.63 ± 0.97 4.4 ± 0.67 < 0.0001
  1. Numbers are presented as Mean ± SD or as proportions, n(%)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; cm: Centimeters; CR: Cardiovascular risks; DBP: Diastolic blood pressure; HDL-C: High density lipoprotein-cholesterol; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; kg: Kilograms; kg/m2: Kilograms per squared meters; KSA: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; LDL-C: Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; MHO: Metabolically healthy obesity; mm Hg: Millimeters of mercury; mmol/L:Millimoles per liter; MUO: Metabolically unhealthy obesity; SBP: Systolic blood pressure; SD: Standard deviation; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; WC: Waist circumference