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Table 3 Adjusted associations between newborn weight change, cardio-metabolic indicators at age 4 and cardio-metabolic indicators at age 7 from path analysis

From: Newborn weight change and childhood cardio-metabolic traits – a prospective cohort study

  NWC (%) Cardio-metabolic indicators at age 4 (z-score)
β1 (95%CI) β5 (95%CI)
Cardio-metabolic indicators at age 4
Model 1
 Glucose z-score 0.004 (−0.043; 0.051)
 LDL-cholesterol z-score 0.017 (−0.031; 0.065)
 Triglycerides z-score 0.004 (−0.040; 0.049)
 Waist circumference z-score −0.003 (− 0.046; 0.039)
 Systolic blood pressure z-score 0.017 (−0.016; 0.049)
 Diastolic blood pressure z-score 0.015 (−0.018; 0.048)
Cardio-metabolic indicators at age 7
Model 1
 Glucose z-score 0.008 (−0.035; 0.051)
 LDL-cholesterol z-score 0.001 (−0.045; 0.047)
 Triglycerides z-score 0.017 (−0.025; 0.060)
 Waist circumference z-score 0.019 (−0.022; 0.060)
 Systolic blood pressure z-score 0.031 (−0.006; 0.067)
 Diastolic blood pressure z-score −0.010 (− 0.040; 0.020)
Model 2
 Glucose z-score 0.007 (−0.035; 0.048) 0.235 (0.136; 0.334)*
 LDL-cholesterol z-score −0.012 (− 0.045; 0.022) 0.655 (0.575; 0.735)*
 Triglycerides z-score 0.016 (−0.024; 0.057) 0.281 (0.180; 0.383)*
 Waist circumference z-score 0.021 (−0.008; 0.025) 0.725 (0.657; 0.793)*
 Systolic blood pressure z-score 0.025 (−0.009; 0.058) 0.369 (0.251; 0.488)*
 Diastolic blood pressure z-score −0.013 (− 0.042; 0.016) 0.153 (0.050; 0.256)*
  1. Abbreviations: NWC newborn weight change, LDL low density lipoprotein, β regression coefficient, CI confidence interval
  2. Cardio-metabolic indicator at age 4 (Model 1) ≈ β0 + β1 (NWC) + β2 (maternal education) + β3 (maternal pre-pregnancy BMI) + β4 (gestational age) + β5 (birth weight)
  3. Cardio-metabolic indicator at age 7 (Model 1) ≈ β0 + β1 (NWC) + β2 (maternal education) + β3 (maternal pre-pregnancy BMI) + β4 (birth weight)
  4. Cardio-metabolic indicator at age 7 (Model 2) ≈ β0 + β1 (NWC) + β2 (maternal education) + β3 (maternal pre-pregnancy BMI) + β4 (birth weight) + β5 (same cardio-metabolic indicator at 4)
  5. *p < 0.05.
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