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Table 1 Dioxin concentrations in maternal breast milk stratified by child’s sex

From: Sex-specific effects of perinatal dioxin exposure on eating behavior in 3-year-old Vietnamese children

   Samples with Boys Girls
  LOD below LOD (N = 106) (N = 79)
  (ppt) N (%) Median GM GSD Median GM GSD
PCDD congeners (pg/g lipid)
 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD 0.004 11 (5.9) 1.5 1.3 2.1 1.7 1.4 2.6
 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDD 0.011 0 4.2 4.3 1.6 4.5 4.1 1.7
 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD 0.004 0 2.2 2.3 1.6 2.4 2.3 1.7
 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDD 0.01 0 8.3 8.2 1.6 8.4 8.2 1.8
 1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDD 0.008 0 2.5 2.6 1.6 2.7 2.7 1.7
 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD 0.008 0 12.1 12.0 1.5 11.4 12.1 1.6
 OctaCDD 0.008 0 63.9 67.7 1.5 68.1 67.7 1.6
PCDF congeners (pg/g lipid)
 2,3,7,8-TetraCDF 0.005 13 (7.0) 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.6 0.5 2.2
 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDF 0.006 0 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.2 2.1
 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF 0.01 0 7.2 7.1 1.5 8.1 7.2 1.7
 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDF 0.008 0 16.5 16.7 1.6 19.9 18.0 1.9
 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDF 0.003 0 10.8 10.2 1.6 12.0 11.1 1.9
 1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDF 0.004 12 (13.5) 0.2 0.2 2.2 0.3 0.3 2.7
 2,3,4,6,7,8-HexaCDF 0.006 0 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.9
 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF 0.01 0 10.8 11.6 1.6 13.5 12.9 2.0
 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HeptaCDF 0.004 3 (1.6) 1.2 1.1 1.9 1.6 1.2 2.7
 OctaCDF 0.013 47 (25.4) 0.5 0.6 2.4 0.5 0.6 2.6
TEQs (pg-TEQ/g lipid)
 TEQ-PCDDs    7.4 7.3 1.6 8.0 7.3 1.8
 TEQ-PCDFs    5.2 5.3 1.5 5.7 5.6 1.8
 TEQ-PCDDs/Fs    12.5 12.6 1.5 14.2 13.0 1.7
  1. CDD chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, CDF chlorinated dibenzofuran, GM geometrical mean, GSD geometrical standard deviation, LOD limit of detection, PCDD polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofuran, ppt parts per trillion, TEQ toxic equivalency