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Table 1 Study Sample Characteristics by Adverse Childhood Experiences, NSCH 2011–2012†

From: Childhood adversity and parent perceptions of child resilience

  Sample 0 ACEs 1 ACE 2–3 ACEs 4+ ACEs P-value
(n = 62,200) (n = 32,724) (47%) (n = 14,907) (26%) (n = 10,179) (19%) (n = 4390) (8%)
Weighted Proportion No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)  
Age, mean (SD) 11.5 (3.5) 11.2 (3.7) 11.6 (3.4) 11.9 (3.2) 12.3 (3.2) < .001
Gender, % male 32,142 (51.1) 16,850 (51.3) 7707 (51.1) 5267 (50.5) 2318 (52.6) N.S.
Race/Ethnicity       < .001
 Non-Hispanic White 41,915 (54.4) 23,851 (58.9) 9406 (51.0) 6129 (49.6) 2529 (50.9)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 5733 (13.9) 2115 (9.9) 1778 (16.1) 1355 (19.2) 485 (16.9)  
 Hispanic 7673 (22.2) 3449 (21.3) 2110 (24.5) 1432 (22.2) 682 (20.9)  
 Other race/ethnicity 6260 (9.5) 2976 (9.9) 1449 (8.5) 1176 (9.08) 659 (11.4)  
Child w/special health care need 15,314 (24.0) 6404 (18.6) 3651 (23.6) 3289 (30.1) 1970 (42.8) <.001
Household poverty status       < .001
 0–133% FPL 12,829 (29.6) 3382 (18.2) 3743 (34.1) 3655 (41.9) 2049 (52.9)  
 134–200% FPL 6192 (12.2) 2236 (9.59) 1844 (13.8) 1444 (14.8) 668 (15.6)  
 201% FPL or greater 43,179 (58.2) 27,106 (72.2) 9320 (52.1) 5080 (43.3) 1673 (31.5)  
Parental education       < .001
 Less than high school 3533 (11.5) 1186 (8.6) 1089 (14.0) 842 (13.5) 416 (15.4)  
 High school graduate 9409 (19.8) 3353 (14.8) 2745 (22.3) 2235 (25.8) 1076 (26.5)  
 Greater than high school 48,924 (68.7) 28,010 (76.6) 10,984 (63.7) 7046 (60.7) 2884 (58.1)  
Total children in household       
 One child 24,863 (21.2) 11,953 (18.4) 6380 (22.6) 4614 (25.2) 1916 (24.2) <.001
 Two children 23,867 (38.4) 13,753 (41.8) 5315 (37.8) 3277 (34.2) 1342 (30.2)  
 Three children 9382 (27.6) 5034 (28.7) 2167 (26.8) 1478 (25.1) 703 (29.7)  
 Four or more children 4268 (12.8) 1984 (11.1) 1045 (12.8) 810 (15.5) 429 (15.8)  
Family structure       < .001
 Two parent family 47,677 (73.5) 30,524 (91.3) 10,371 (68.9) 5203 (50.5) 1579 (38.1)  
 Single mother 9812 (19.3) 1491 (6.7) 3138 (22.6) 3495 (36.2) 1688 (42.3)  
 Other family type 4433 (7.2) 583 (2.0) 1314 (8.5) 1439 (13.3) 1097 (19.6)  
Attends religious service       
 Not often 42,348 (70.6) 9370 (26.4) 4929 (31.2) 3641 (32.6) 1671 (33.4) <.001
 Often 19,611 (29.4) 23,244 (73.6) 9904 (68.8) 6496 (67.4) 2704 (66.6)  
Family eats together, mean days (SD) 5.0 (2.1) 5.1 (2.1) 5.0 (2.0) 4.9 (2.1) 5.0 (2.1) **
Shares ideas with children       <.001
 Not well 1639 (3.2) 543 (1.8) 413 (3.3) 407 (4.8) 276 (7.1)  
 Well 60,524 (96.8) 32,162 (98.2) 14,485 (96.7) 9766 (95.2) 4111 (92.9)  
Neighborhood cohesion       < .001
 Not cohesive 7301 (15.9) 2370 (10.3) 2004 (17.4) 1839 (21.9) 1088 (29.5)  
 Cohesive 53,648 (84.1) 29,763 (89.7) 12,584 (82.6) 8082 (78.1) 3219 (70.5)  
Neighborhood safety       < .001
 Unsafe 5482 (13.0) 1751 (8.5) 1612 (14.6) 1369 (18.3) 750 (21.1)  
 Safe 56,442 (87.0) 30,834 (91.5) 13,222 (85.4) 8762 (81.7) 3624 (78.9)  
Neighborhood amenities       
 0–1 6215 (9.9) 2961 (8.7) 1570 (10.6) 1123 (11.1) 561 (12.3) <.001
 2 7899 (12.2) 3936 (10.9) 1979 (13.2) 1372 (13.3) 612 (13.6)  
 3 15,108 (24.3) 7857 (23.5) 3642 (23.6) 2521 (26.2) 1088 (26.6)  
 4 32,159 (53.6) 17,577 (56.9) 7505 (52.6) 5003 (49.4) 2074 (47.5)  
Neighborhood detractors       <.001
 None 45,639 (72.1) 25,955 (80.1) 10,633 (70.9) 6573 (62.4) 2448 (51.3)  
 1 10,495 (17.1) 4780 (13.6) 2723 (18.7) 2027 (20.6) 965 (24.1)  
  > 2 5797 (10.8) 1851 (6.2) 1454 (10.4) 1531 (16.9) 961 (24.6)  
Presence of mentors, yes 57,694 (89.0) 30,640 (89.3) 13,624 (87.1) 9376 (90.5) 4054 (90.1) <.01
  1. Abbreviations: N.S. Not Significant, FPL Federal Poverty Line; amenities include: Presence of sidewalks, parks, recreation centers, and libraries;
  2. Detractors include: litter, rundown housing, and graffiti
  3. †Numbers listed are unweighted; however all proportions are displayed as weighted %
  4. P-values reflect statistical comparisons across the categories of ACEs
  5. **Comparison are all to 0 ACEs; p = 0.06 for 1 ACE, p < .001 for 2–3 ACEs, and p = 0.01 for 4+ ACEs