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Table 2 Referral Indications for Early and Late Cohorts*

From: Changing outpatient referral patterns in a small pediatric nephrology practice

Indication for Referral Early Cohort (2002–2004) n (%) Late Cohorts (2011–2013) n (%) χ2, p Odds Ratio‡ [95% CI]
HBP 107 (20.9%) 120 (23.6%) 1.024, 0.311 1.165 [0.867, 1.565
HEM/PRO 108 (21.1%) 105 (20.6%) 0.040, 0.842 0.970 [0.717, 1.312]
UTIs/VUR* 87 (17.0%) 41 (8.1%) 18.698, 0.000 0.472 [0.288, 0.633]
ABN IMAGING 79 (15.5%) 96 (19.1%) 2.311, 0.128 1.287 [0.929, 1.784]
VOIDING ISSUES* 34 (6.7%) 10 (2.0%) 13.583, 0.000 0.281 [0.137, 0.575]
↓GFR 21 (4.1%) 18 (3.5%) 0.228, 0.633 0.855 [0.450, 1.625]
STONES/NC 17 (3.3%) 23 (4.5%) 0.961, 0.327 1.375 [0.726, 2.606]
GLOM/VAS 20 (3.9%) 30 (5.9%) 2.145, 0.143 1.538 [0.861, 2.745]
ABN LABS† 16 (3.1%) 31 (6.1%) 5.080, 0.024 2.006 [1.083, 3.716]
MICROALB† 5 (1.0%) 14 (2.8%) 4.380, 0.036 2.862 [1.023, 8.006]
OTHER 17 (3.3%) 21 (4.1%) 0.454, 0.501 1.250 [0.652, 2.399]
  1. Overall frequencies within categories differed (p < 0.001 comparing cohorts)
  2. HBP elevated blood pressure or hypertension, HEM/PRO hematuria and/or proteinuria, UTI/VUR urinary tract infection/vesicoureteral reflux, ABN abnormal, ↓GFR decreased glomerular filtration rate, NC nephrocalcinosis; GLOM/VAS, glomerular disease, vasculitis, LABS laboratory studies, MICROALB microalbuminuria; OTHER (as defined in Table 1)
  3. *p < .001, †p < .05, ‡Early cohort as reference