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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of children in different diagnostic groups (n = 295)

From: Occurrence of erythema migrans in children with Lyme neuroborreliosis and the association with clinical characteristics and outcome – a prospective cohort study

On admission Definite LNB
(n = 68)
Possible LNB
(n = 35)
Non-LNB
(n = 133)
Other diagnosis
(n = 59)
Gender
 Female, n (%) 30 (44) 15 (43) 83 (62) 30 (51)
 Male, n (%) 38 (56) 20 (57) 50 (38) 29 (49)
Age, median (range) 6 (2–15) 8 (4–15) 13 (1–17) 10 (0–17)
Observed tick bite, n (%) 41 (60) 18 (51) 59 (44) 15 (25)
Clinical characteristics
 EM, n (%) 28 (41) 9 (26) 18 (14) 2 (3)
 Facial nerve palsy, n (%) 46 (68) 25 (71) 51 (38) 5 (8)
 Headache, n (%) 49 (72) 24 (69) 94 (71) 39 (66)
 Fatigue, n (%) 62 (91) 23 (66) 88 (66) 38 (64)
 Fever, n (%) 37 (54) 12 (34) 23 (17) 19 (32)
 Neck pain, n (%) 36 (53) 18 (51) 35 (26) 19 (32)
 Neck stiffness, n (%) 23 (34) 11 (31) 19 (14) 12 (20)
 Loss of appetite, n (%) 43 (63) 19 (54) 46 (35) 19 (32)
 Nausea, n (%) 24 (35) 12 (34) 46 (35) 23 (39)
 Vertigo, n (%) 10 (15) 7 (20) 59 (44) 24 (41)
Laboratory findings
 Pleocytosis, median (range) 164 (20–890) 85 (6–1125) 0 (0–4) 0 (0–634)
 Anti-Borrelia antibodies in CSF
  IgG, n (%) 18 (26) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  IgM, n (%) 18 (26) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  IgG + IgM, n (%) 32 (48) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Anti-Borrelia antibodies in serum
  IgG, n (%) NA 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  IgM, n (%) NA 1 (3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  IgG + IgM, n (%) NA 19 (54) 16 (12) 1 (1)
 Antibiotic treatment, n (%) 68 (100) 35 (100) 18 (11) 8 (14)
  1. EM erythema migrans, LNB Lyme neuroborreliosis, Ig immunoglobulin, NA not available; pleocytosis = total cell count > 5 × 106/L in CSF [17]; Anti-Borrelia antibodies in CSF are intrathecally produced and analyzed with the IDEIA assay [18]; patient are classified according to European guidelines [13]