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Table 1 Results of the Student’s and Welch’s t-tests, comparing hypertensive and control group scores

From: Health-related quality of life in paediatric arterial hypertension: a cross-sectional study

   Patient sample Control sample Mean Differencea Effect size Independent samples t-test
PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales No. of items N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) Score Points (SEDb) Hedges’ g t df p 95% CI for Mean Difference
Child Self-report
 Total Score 23 70 77.72 (14.57) 99 84.66 (11.00) −6.94 (2.06) 0.55 −3.37 122 .001* − 11.02; − 2.86
 Psychosocial Health 15 70 76.29 (14.90) 99 82.41 (12.81) −6.11 (2.14) 0.45 −2.86 167 .005 −10.34; − 1.89
 Physical Functioning 8 70 82.00 (17.83) 99 91.41 (8.03) −9.41 (2.28) 0.72 −4.13 89 <.001* − 13.95; − 4.89
 Emotional Functioning 5 70 71.57 (18.19) 99 79.24 (16.39) −7.67 (2.67) 0.45 −2.86 167 .005 −12.96; −2.38
 Social Functioning 5 70 81.86 (18.65) 99 86.67 (14.05) −4.81 (2.64) 0.30 −1.82 122 .071* − 10.03; 0.42
 School Functioning 5 70 75.45 (19.39) 99 81.31 (16.28) −5.86 (2.75) 0.33 −2.13 167 .035 −11.30; − 0.42
Parent Proxy-report
 Total Score 23 69 77.66 (13.99) 100 84.14 (11.00) −6.48 (1.93) 0.53 −3.36 167 .001 −10.28; −2.67
 Psychosocial Health 15 69 76.79 (14.52) 100 82.15 (11.79) −5.36 (2.03) 0.41 −2.64 167 .009 −9.36; −1.34
 Physical Functioning 8 69 80.26 (15.66) 100 90.11 (12.37) −9.85 (2.25) 0.71 −4.37 123 <.001* − 14.31; − 5.39
 Emotional Functioning 5 69 70.91 (17.07) 100 78.40 (14.94) −7.49 (2.48) 0.47 −3.02 167 .003 −12.39; − 2.60
 Social Functioning 5 69 82.30 (18.88) 100 86.09 (14.52) −3.79 (2.57) 0.23 −1.40 121 .163* − 9.13; 1.55
 School Functioning 5 69 77.17 (16.66) 100 81.95 (15.79) −4.78 (2.53) 0.30 −1.89 167 .061 −9.77; 0.21
  1. N number of participants, SD standard deviation, df degrees of freedom, CI confidence interval.
  2. *Welch’s t used due to unequal variances, according to Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
  3. aDifference between patient and control sample mean scores
  4. bStandard Error Difference