Skip to main content

Table 4 Risk factors associated with carriage by an erythromycin non–susceptible strain

From: Risk factors for carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children

Variable/risk factor Category Percentage of resistancea (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORd (95% CI) p-value
Gender Boy 43.6% Ref b Ref b  
Girl 37.5% 0.77 (0.39, 1.52) 0.74 (0.32, 1.70) 0.48
Age < 1 year 41.2% Ref Ref  
1–2 44.7% 1.16 (0.45, 2.97) 1.39 (0.46, 4.31) 0.56
> 2 years 35.7% 0.79 (0.34, 1.86) 0.92 (0.28, 3.02) 0.89
Nationality Both parents Cypriots 41.1% 1.39 (0.61, 3.36) 3.04 (0.94, 10.70) 0.07
Others 33.3% Ref Ref  
Breastfeeding Yes 41.7% 1.43 (0.64, 3.33) 2.27 (0.84, 6.65) 0.12
No 33.3% Ref Ref  
Exposure to smoking Yes 41.5% 1.13 (0.56, 2.26) 1.62 (0.66, 4.00) 0.29
No 38.6% Ref Ref  
Attendance at a Day care Yes 39.1% 0.93 (0.47, 1.88) 1.04 (0.39, 2.80) 0.94
No 40.7% Ref Ref  
Siblings No 48.8% Ref Ref  
1 39.7% 0.69 (0.31, 1.53) 0.65 (0.24, 1.76) 0.40
≥2 30.0% 0.44 (0.18, 1.09) 0.25 (0.07, 0.80) c 0.02 c
Vaccination Full 29.6% 0.60 (0.22, 1.50) 0.34 (0.10, 1.08) 0.07
Incomplete 44.0% 1.12 (0.44, 2.78) 0.66 (0.21, 2.05) 0.48
No 41.3% Ref Ref  
Origin of specimen From a public center 42.7% Ref Ref  
From a private center 35.0% 0.73 (0.36,1.43) 0.36 (0.13,0.93) c 0.04 c
Antibiotics last month Yes 54.5% 2.23 (1.01, 5.01) c 3.00 (1.15, 8.17) c 0.02 c
No 35.9% Ref Ref  
Antibiotics last trimester Yes 51.5% 2.66 (1.32, 5.47) c 3.78 (1.56, 9.80) c < 0.01 c
No 30.0% Ref Ref  
  1. aStrains with intermediate and full resistance to erythromycin are included
  2. bRef means a reference group
  3. cStatistically significant associations are marked in bold
  4. dAdjusted for gender, age, nationality, breastfeeding, exposure to smoking, day care attendance, siblings, vaccination, origin of specimen and antibiotic use the last month
  5. p-values for multiple logistic regression model
\