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Table 3 Risk factors associated with colonization by a penicillin non-susceptible strain

From: Risk factors for carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children

Variable/Risk factor Category Percentage of resistancea (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORd (95% CI) p-value
Gender Boy 48.7% Ref b Ref b  
Girl 32.8% 0.51 (0.26, 1.01) 0.39 (0.16, 0.90) c 0.03 c
Age < 1 year 44.1% Ref Ref  
1–2 47.4% 1.14 (0.45, 2.91) 0.89 (0.23, 2.76) 0.85
> 2 years 37.1% 0.75 (0.33, 1.73) 0.47 (0.14, 1.55) 0.22
Nationality Both parents Cypriots 41.1% 0.91 (0.40, 2.09) 0.93 (0.29, 3.03) 0.91
Others 43.3% Ref Ref  
Breastfeeding Yes 41.7% 1.10 (0.50, 2.48) 1.36 (0.52, 3.76) 0.54
No 39.4% Ref Ref  
Exposure to smoking Yes 43.4% 1.16 (0.58, 2.32) 1.45 (0.59, 3.57) 0.41
No 39.8% Ref Ref  
Day care attendance Yes 41.4% 1.03 (0.52, 2.06) 1.45 (0.54, 4.02) 0.47
No 40.7% Ref Ref  
Siblings No 41.9% Ref Ref  
1 41.4% 0.98 (0.44, 2.19) 0.98 (0.35, 2.76) 0.97
> = 2 40.0% 0.93 (0.38, 2.23) 0.67 (0.21, 2.06) 0.49
Vaccination Full 29.6% 0.63 (0.23, 1.59) 0.81 (0.24, 2.63) 0.72
Incomplete 56.0% 1.91 (0.77, 4.85) 2.55 (0.82, 8.32) 0.11
No 40.0% Ref Ref  
Origin of specimen From a public center 47.6% Ref Ref  
From a private center 33.3% 0.55 (0.27,1.09) 0.32 (0.12, 0.82) c 0.02 c
Antibiotics last month Yes 60.6% 2.86 (1.29, 6.55) c 2.83 (1.09, 7.74) c 0.04 c
No 35.0% Ref Ref  
Antibiotics last trimester Yes 48.5% 1.80 (0.91, 3.63) 2.24 (0.95, 5.48) 0.07
No 34.3% Ref Ref  
  1. aStrain with intermediate and full resistance to penicillin are included
  2. bRef: means a reference group
  3. cStatistically significant associations are marked in bold
  4. dAdjusted for gender, age, nationality, breastfeeding, exposure to smoking, day care attendance, siblings, vaccination, origin of specimen and antibiotic use the last month
  5. p-values for multiple logistic regression model
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